Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 151, Issue 1, pp 121–129 | Cite as

Comparison of multi-frequency bioimpedance with perometry for the early detection and intervention of lymphoedema after axillary node clearance for breast cancer

  • Nigel J. BundredEmail author
  • Charlotte Stockton
  • Vaughan Keeley
  • Katie Riches
  • Linda Ashcroft
  • Abigail Evans
  • Anthony Skene
  • Arnie Purushotham
  • Maria Bramley
  • Tracey Hodgkiss
  • The Investigators of BEA/PLACE studies
Clinical Trial


The importance of early detection of lymphoedema by arm volume measurements before surgery and repeated measurements after surgery in women undergoing axillary node clearance (ANC) in order to enable early intervention is recognised. A prospective multi-centre study was performed which studied the difference between multi-frequency bioimpedance electrical analysis (BIS) and perometer arm measurement in predicting the development of lymphoedema. Women undergoing ANC underwent pre-operative and regular post-operative measurements of arm volume by both methods. The primary endpoint is the incidence of lymphoedema (≥10 % arm volume increase compared to contralateral arm by perometer) at 2 and 5 years after ANC. The threshold for intervention in lymphoedema was also assessed. Out of 964 patients recruited, 612 had minimum 6 months follow-up data. Using 1-month post-operative measurements as baseline, perometer detected 31 patients with lymphoedema by 6 months (BIS detected 53). By 6 months, 89 % of those with no lymphoedema reported at least one symptom. There was moderate correlation between perometer and BIS at 3 months (r = 0.40) and 6 months (r = 0.60), with a sensitivity of 73 % and specificity of 84 %. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a threshold for early intervention of ≥5 to <10 % (p = 0.03). Threshold for early intervention to prevent progression to lymphoedema is ≥5 to <10 % but symptoms alone do not predict lymphoedema. The modest correlation between methods at 6 months indicates arm volume measurements remain gold standard, although longer term follow-up is required.


Lymphoedema Bioimpedance Breast cancer Axillary node clearance Threshold Prediction 



This article summarises independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Programme Grants for Applied Research Programme (Grant Reference RP-PG-0608-10168). The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health”. The manuscript was prepared on behalf of the Investigators of the BEA study who have recruited patients: Mr M Absar, Miss Janet Walls, North Manchester General Hospital; Mr Robert Kirby, University Hospital of North Staffordshire; Mr Brian Isgar, New Cross Hospital; Mr Mohammad Sharif, Stepping Hill Hospital.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nigel J. Bundred
    • 1
    Email author
  • Charlotte Stockton
    • 2
  • Vaughan Keeley
    • 3
  • Katie Riches
    • 3
  • Linda Ashcroft
    • 4
  • Abigail Evans
    • 5
  • Anthony Skene
    • 6
  • Arnie Purushotham
    • 7
  • Maria Bramley
    • 8
  • Tracey Hodgkiss
    • 8
  • The Investigators of BEA/PLACE studies
  1. 1.University Hospital of South ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Nightingale and Genesis Prevention CentreUniversity Hospital of South ManchesterManchesterUK
  3. 3.Nightingale Macmillan UnitRoyal Derby Hospital, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustDerbyUK
  4. 4.Clinical Trials Co-ordination UnitThe Christie Hospital NHS TrustManchesterUK
  5. 5.Poole Hospital NHS Foundation TrustPooleUK
  6. 6.Royal Bournemouth & Christchurch Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustBournemouthUK
  7. 7.Research OncologyKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  8. 8.North Manchester General HospitalThe Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS TrustManchesterUK

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