Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 145, Issue 3, pp 775–784 | Cite as

Deleterious RAD51C germline mutations rarely predispose to breast and ovarian cancer in Pakistan

  • Muhammad U. Rashid
  • Noor Muhammad
  • Saima Faisal
  • Asim Amin
  • Ute HamannEmail author


RAD51C plays a key role in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair and maintenance of genomic stability. Biallelic RAD51C mutations cause Fanconi anemia, and monoallelic mutations predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer. Genetic variability of RAD51C and its impact in Asian populations have been poorly studied. Here, we report the results of comprehensive mutational screening of the RAD51C gene in 348 BRCA1/2-negative breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from Pakistan. Mutation analysis of the complete RAD51C-coding region was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by DNA sequencing of variant fragments. Three novel protein-truncating mutations, c.204T>A, c.225T>G, and c.701C>G, were identified. c.204T>A was found in one out of 22 (4.5 %) early-onset (≤45 years of age) ovarian cancer patients and c.225T>G in one out of 119 (0.8 %) patients from breast cancer only families. c.701C>G was found in a 60-year-old control with no family history of breast/ovarian cancer. Furthermore, three novel in silico-predicted potentially functional mutations, a missense mutation, c.873T>G, a variant in 5′UTR, c.1-34T>G, and a recurrent intronic variant, c.965+21A>G, were identified. The missense mutation was observed in a patient with bilateral breast cancer from a breast and ovarian cancer family (HBOC), the 5′UTR variant was noted in an early-onset breast cancer patient, and the intronic variant in one early-onset breast cancer patient and one ovarian cancer patient from a HBOC family. Five of the six mutations described were not detected in 400 healthy controls. These findings suggest that RAD51C plays a marginal role in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition in Pakistan. Reliable estimation of the clinical implications of carrying a deleterious RAD51C mutation will require identification of additional mutation-positive patients/families.


RAD51C Germline mutations Familial breast and/or ovarian cancer Pakistan 



We are grateful to all family members for their participation in this study. This study was supported by the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre and the German Cancer Research Center.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad U. Rashid
    • 1
    • 2
  • Noor Muhammad
    • 1
  • Saima Faisal
    • 1
  • Asim Amin
    • 3
  • Ute Hamann
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (SKMCH & RC)LahorePakistan
  2. 2.German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)Molecular Genetics of Breast CancerHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Carolinas Medical CenterLevine Cancer InstituteCharlotteUSA

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