Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 138, Issue 3, pp 665–673 | Cite as

Trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in the United States: implications for prevention

  • Adetunji T. ToriolaEmail author
  • Graham A. Colditz


While debate continues regarding short-term changes in breast cancer incidence and the impact of screening on mortality, a long-term view of trends in incidence and mortality may better inform our understanding of the changing patterns of disease and ultimately guide in population-based prevention. Although many factors have influenced breast cancer incidence over the past seven decades, some have played more prominent roles at various times. Changing reproductive patterns, greater longevity, and post-menopausal hormone (estrogen + progesterone) were important in the steady increase before 1980, while mammographic screening, probably in conjunction with escalating combined estrogen + progesterone use, played dominant roles in the post-1980 surge. Accruing evidence also indicates that the rapid drop in 2003 was mostly due to a sharp decline in estrogen + progesterone use. The most paradoxical observation relates to the divergence in incidence and mortality trends most noticeable when mortality rates started to decline shortly after the surge in incidence rates started in 1980. In addition to the dynamic changes in risk factor profiles, the divergence reflects wider uptake of screening mammography, better characterization of tumor biology, and improvements in treatment. The rise in incidence rates over the past three decades is due to an increase in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumors, which respond favorably to treatment. On the other hand, the incidence of estrogen receptor negative (ER−) tumors, which respond poorly to hormonal therapy, has been decreasing for almost three decades. Furthermore, widespread adoption of screening mammography has led to tumors being diagnosed at earlier stages when treatment is effective and advances in treatment have ensured adoption of targeted and better tolerated therapies. To achieve long-term success in the primary prevention of breast cancer, a greater understanding of factors responsible for the decrease in ER− tumors is essential. In addition, improving the sensitivity of breast cancer screening to facilitate earlier detection of tumors with very aggressive phenotypes would go a long way in bridging the divergence between incidence and mortality.


Breast cancer Incidence Mortality Screening mammography Post-menopausal hormone 


Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interests.


  1. 1.
    DeSantis C, Siegel R, Bandi P, Jemal A (2011) Breast cancer statistics, 2011. CA Cancer J Clin 61(6):409–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2012) Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 62(1):10–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D (2011) Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 61(2):69–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garfinkel L, Boring CC, Heath CW Jr (1994) Changing trends: an overview of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer 74(1 Suppl):222–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson WF, Jatoi I, Devesa SS (2006) Assessing the impact of screening mammography: breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Connecticut (1943–2002). Breast Cancer Res Treat 99(3):333–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    NCI (2012) The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) cancer statistics review 1975–2007. National Cancer Institute, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nelson HD, Zakher B, Cantor A, Fu R, Griffin J, O’Meara ES, Buist DS, Kerlikowske K, van Ravesteyn NT, Trentham-Dietz A et al (2012) Risk factors for breast cancer for women aged 40 to 49 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 156(9):635–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2001) Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Lancet 358(9291):1389–1399Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelsey JL, Gammon MD, John EM (1993) Reproductive factors and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 15(1):36–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Helmrich SP, Shapiro S, Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Slone D, Bain C, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Rosenshein NB, Knapp RC et al (1983) Risk factors for breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 117(1):35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2002) Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. Lancet 360(9328):187–195Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen WY, Rosner B, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Willett WC (2011) Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns, and breast cancer risk. JAMA 306(17):1884–1890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eliassen AH, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC, Hankinson SE (2006) Adult weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. JAMA 296(2):193–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ginsburg OM, Martin LJ, Boyd NF (2008) Mammographic density, lobular involution, and risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 99(9):1369–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Warner E (2011) Clinical practice. Breast-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 365(11):1025–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    American Cancer Society I (2012) Breast cancer facts and figures 2011–2012. ACS, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    White E (1987) Projected changes in breast cancer incidence due to the trend toward delayed childbearing. Am J Public Health 77(4):495–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ (2006) Fertility and abortion rates in the United States, 1960–2002. Int J Androl 29(1):34–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Munson ML (2003) Births: final data for 2002. Natl Vital Stat Rep 52(10):1–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hamilton BE (2004) Reproduction rates for 1990–2002 and intrinsic rates for 2000–2001: United States. Natl Vital Stat Rep 52(17):1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Chen WY, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE (2004) Risk factors for breast cancer according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 96(3):218–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rosner B, Colditz GA (1996) Nurses’ health study: log-incidence mathematical model of breast cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 88(6):359–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2012) Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118,964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 13(11):1141–1151Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Demerath EW, Towne B, Chumlea WC, Sun SS, Czerwinski SA, Remsberg KE, Siervogel RM (2004) Recent decline in age at menarche: the Fels Longitudinal Study. Am J Hum Biol 16(4):453–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cole TJ (2000) Secular trends in growth. Proc Nutr Soc 59(2):317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heck KE, Schoendorf KC, Ventura SJ, Kiely JL (1997) Delayed childbearing by education level in the United States, 1969–1994. Matern Child Health J 1(2):81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Key T, Appleby P, Barnes I, Reeves G (2002) Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 94(8):606–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Hennekens C, Rosner B, Speizer FE (1995) The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 332(24):1589–1593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (1996) Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet 347(9017):1713–1727Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stefanick ML (2005) Estrogens and progestins: background and history, trends in use, and guidelines and regimens approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Am J Med 118(Suppl 12B):64–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hersh AL, Stefanick ML, Stafford RS (2004) National use of postmenopausal hormone therapy: annual trends and response to recent evidence. JAMA 291(1):47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McPherson K, Drife JO (1986) The pill and breast cancer: why the uncertainty? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 293(6549):709–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Malone KE, Daling JR, Weiss NS (1993) Oral contraceptives in relation to breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 15(1):80–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ogden CL, Yanovski SZ, Carroll MD, Flegal KM (2007) The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology 132(6):2087–2102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL (2012) Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA 307(5):491–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shapiro S (1997) Periodic screening for breast cancer: the HIP Randomized Controlled Trial. Health Insurance Plan. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 22:27–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Howard J (1987) Using mammography for cancer control: an unrealized potential. CA Cancer J Clin 37(1):33–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leads from the MMWR. Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older—Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1987. JAMA 261(14):2031–2032, (1989)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Glass AG, Hoover RN (1990) Rising incidence of breast cancer: relationship to stage and receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 82(8):693–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jonsson H, Johansson R, Lenner P (2005) Increased incidence of invasive breast cancer after the introduction of service screening with mammography in Sweden. Int J Cancer 117(5):842–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Olsen AH, Jensen A, Njor SH, Villadsen E, Schwartz W, Vejborg I, Lynge E (2003) Breast cancer incidence after the start of mammography screening in Denmark. Br J Cancer 88(3):362–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jemal A, Ward E, Thun MJ (2007) Recent trends in breast cancer incidence rates by age and tumor characteristics among U.S. women. Breast Cancer Res 9(3):R28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chen W, Hankinson S, Schnitt S, Rosner B, Holmes M, Colditz G (2004) Association of hormone replacement therapy to estrogen and progesterone receptor status in invasive breast carcinoma. Cancer 101:1490–1500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fournier A, Fabre A, Mesrine S, Boutron-Ruault M, Berrino F, Clavel-Chapelon F (2008) Use of different postmenopausal hormone therapies and risk of histology- and hormone receptor-defined invasive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:1260–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bao P-P, Shu XO, Gao Y-T, Zheng Y, Cai H, Deming SL, Ruan Z-X, Su Y, Gu K, Lu W et al (2011) Association of hormone-related characteristics and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status in the shanghai breast cancer study. Am J Epidemiol 174(6):661–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH (1985) A prospective study of postmenopausal estrogen therapy and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 313(17):1044–1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ettinger B, Genant HK, Cann CE (1985) Long-term estrogen replacement therapy prevents bone loss and fractures. Ann Intern Med 102(3):319–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Colditz GA (2007) Decline in breast cancer incidence due to removal of promoter: combination estrogen plus progestin. Breast Cancer Res 9(4):108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Berry DA, Ravdin PM (2007) Breast cancer trends: a marriage between clinical trial evidence and epidemiology. J Natl Cancer Inst 99(15):1139–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    National Center for Health Statistics (2005) Health, United States, 2005, with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. HyattsvilleGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ernster VL, Barclay J, Kerlikowske K, Grady D, Henderson C (1996) Incidence of and treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. JAMA 275(12):913–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N, Berg CD, Chlebowski RT, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK, Berry DA (2007) The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med 356(16):1670–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, Jackson RD, Beresford SA, Howard BV, Johnson KC et al (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288(3):321–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative I (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the women’s health initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288(3):321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Buist DS, Newton KM, Miglioretti DL, Beverly K, Connelly MT, Andrade S, Hartsfield CL, Wei F, Chan KA, Kessler L (2004) Hormone therapy prescribing patterns in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 104(5 Pt 1):1042–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Canfell K, Banks E, Moa AM, Beral V (2008) Decrease in breast cancer incidence following a rapid fall in use of hormone replacement therapy in Australia. Med J Aust 188(11):641–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Katalinic A, Rawal R (2008) Decline in breast cancer incidence after decrease in utilisation of hormone replacement therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 107(3):427–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Soerjomataram I, Coebergh JW, Louwman MW, Visser O, van Leeuwen FE (2007) Does the decrease in hormone replacement therapy also affect breast cancer risk in the Netherlands? J Clin Oncol 25(31):5038–5039 author reply 5039-5040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De P, Neutel CI, Olivotto I, Morrison H (2010) Breast cancer incidence and hormone replacement therapy in Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst 102(19):1489–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Parkin DM (2009) Is the recent fall in incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer in UK related to changes in use of hormone replacement therapy? Eur J Cancer 45(9):1649–1653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Prasad R, Boland GP, Cramer A, Anderson E, Knox WF, Bundred NJ (2003) Short-term biologic response to withdrawal of hormone replacement therapy in patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Cancer 98(12):2539–2546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    DeSantis C, Howlader N, Cronin KA, Jemal A (2011) Breast cancer incidence rates in U.S. women are no longer declining. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20(5):733–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McNeil C (2007) Breast cancer decline mirrors fall in hormone use, spurs both debate and research. J Natl Cancer Inst 99(4):266–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Waters EA, Cronin KA, Graubard BI, Han PK, Freedman AN (2010) Prevalence of tamoxifen use for breast cancer chemoprevention among U.S. women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19(2):443–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, Stefanick ML, Manson JE, Gass M, Aragaki AK, Ockene JK, Lane DS, Sarto GE et al (2009) Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 360(6):573–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Buist DS, Walker R, Bowles EJ, Carney PA, Taplin SH, Onega T, Kerlikowske K, Clinton W, Miglioretti DL (2012) Screening mammography use among current, former, and never hormone therapy users may not explain recent declines in breast cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21(5):720–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Robbins AS, Clarke CA (2007) Regional changes in hormone therapy use and breast cancer incidence in California from 2001 to 2004. J Clin Oncol 25(23):3437–3439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tabar L, Yen MF, Vitak B, Chen HH, Smith RA, Duffy SW (2003) Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening. Lancet 361(9367):1405–1410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Berry DA, Cronin KA, Plevritis SK, Fryback DG, Clarke L, Zelen M, Mandelblatt JS, Yakovlev AY, Habbema JD, Feuer EJ (2005) Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. N Engl J Med 353(17):1784–1792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kalager M, Haldorsen T, Bretthauer M, Hoff G, Thoresen SO, Adami HO (2009) Improved breast cancer survival following introduction of an organized mammography screening program among both screened and unscreened women: a population-based cohort study. Breast Cancer Res 11(4):R44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Berry DA, Inoue L, Shen Y, Venier J, Cohen D, Bondy M, Theriault R, Munsell MF (2006) Modeling the impact of treatment and screening on U.S. breast cancer mortality: a Bayesian approach. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 36:30–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (1988) Effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and of cytotoxic therapy on mortality in early breast cancer. An overview of 61 randomized trials among 28,896 women. N Engl J Med 319(26):1681–1692Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening (2012) The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. Lancet 380(9855):1778–1786Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Botha JL, Bray F, Sankila R, Parkin DM (2003) Breast cancer incidence and mortality trends in 16 European countries. Eur J Cancer 39(12):1718–1729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bosetti C, Bertuccio P, Levi F, Chatenoud L, Negri E, La Vecchia C (2012) The decline in breast cancer mortality in Europe: an update (to 2009). Breast 21(1):77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Autier P, Boniol M, La Vecchia C, Vatten L, Gavin A, Hery C, Heanue M (2010) Disparities in breast cancer mortality trends between 30 European countries: retrospective trend analysis of WHO mortality database. BMJ 341:c3620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bleyer A, Welch HG (2012) Effect of three decades of screening mammography on breast-cancer incidence. N Engl J Med 367(21):1998–2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Glass AG, Lacey JV Jr, Carreon JD, Hoover RN (2007) Breast cancer incidence, 1980–2006: combined roles of menopausal hormone therapy, screening mammography, and estrogen receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 99(15):1152–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gilliland FD, Joste N, Stauber PM, Hunt WC, Rosenberg R, Redlich G, Key CR (2000) Biologic characteristics of interval and screen-detected breast cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 92(9):743–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Joensuu H, Lehtimaki T, Holli K, Elomaa L, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, Kataja V, Anttila A, Lundin M, Isola J, Lundin J (2004) Risk for distant recurrence of breast cancer detected by mammography screening or other methods. JAMA 292(9):1064–1073PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Esserman L, Shieh Y, Thompson I (2009) Rethinking screening for breast cancer and prostate cancer. JAMA 302(15):1685–1692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Ho MN, MJ OB, Gottlieb LS, Sternberg SS, Waye JD, Schapiro M, Bond JH, Panish JF et al (1993) Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy. The National Polyp Study Workgroup [see comments]. N Engl J Med 329(27):1977–1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Peto J, Gilham C, Fletcher O, Matthews FE (2004) The cervical cancer epidemic that screening has prevented in the UK. Lancet 364(9430):249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Jorgensen KJ, Gotzsche PC (2009) Overdiagnosis in publicly organised mammography screening programmes: systematic review of incidence trends. BMJ 339:b2587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zahl PH, Gotzsche PC, Maehlen J (2011) Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study. Lancet Oncol 12(12):1118–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zahl PH, Maehlen J, Welch HG (2008) The natural history of invasive breast cancers detected by screening mammography. Arch Intern Med 168(21):2311–2316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sainsbury R (2012) The development of endocrine therapy for women with breast cancer. Cancer Treat Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative G, Darby S, McGale P, Correa C, Taylor C, Arriagada R, Clarke M, Cutter D, Davies C, Ewertz M et al (2011) Effect of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery on 10-year recurrence and 15-year breast cancer death: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 10,801 women in 17 randomised trials. Lancet 378(9804):1707–1716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Autier P, Boniol M, Gavin A, Vatten LJ (2011) Breast cancer mortality in neighbouring European countries with different levels of screening but similar access to treatment: trend analysis of WHO mortality database. BMJ 343:d4411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dunnwald LK, Rossing MA, Li CI (2007) Hormone receptor status, tumor characteristics, and prognosis: a prospective cohort of breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res 9(1):R6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Foulkes WD, Smith IE, Reis-Filho JS (2010) Triple-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 363(20):1938–1948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Anderson WF, Katki HA, Rosenberg PS (2011) Incidence of breast cancer in the United States: current and future trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 103(18):1397–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jung S, Spiegelman D, Baglietto L, Bernstein L, Boggs DA, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Cerhan JR, Gaudet MM, Giles GG et al (2013) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 105(3):219–236Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zhang X, Spiegelman D, Baglietto L, Bernstein L, Boggs DA, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Gapstur SM, Giles GG, Giovannucci E et al (2012) Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 95(3):713–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wu Y, Zhang D, Kang S (2013) Physical activity and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat 137(3):869–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Steinkellner AR, Denison SE, Eldridge SL, Lenzi LL, Chen W, Bowlin SJ (2012) A decade of postmenopausal hormone therapy prescribing in the United States: long-term effects of the Women’s Health Initiative. Menopause 19(6):616–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Farhat GN, Cummings SR, Chlebowski RT, Parimi N, Cauley JA, Rohan TE, Huang AJ, Vitolins M, Hubbell FA, Manson JE et al (2011) Sex hormone levels and risks of estrogen receptor-negative and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 103(7):562–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Public Health Sciences, and Siteman Cancer Center, Department of SurgeryWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations