Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 133, Issue 2, pp 741–751 | Cite as

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in proliferative Ki-67-positive breast cancers is associated with poor outcomes

  • Byeong-Woo Park
  • Seho Park
  • Hyung Seok Park
  • Ja Seung Koo
  • Woo Ick Yang
  • Jun Sang Lee
  • Hyewon Hwang
  • Seung Il Kim
  • Kyong Sik Lee


In order to investigate the implications of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in combination with Ki-67 on breast cancer outcomes, the COX-2 and Ki-67 expression levels and other clinicopathologic parameters were investigated in 861 breast cancers. Clinicopathological parameters and survival were investigated in association with the expression levels of both COX-2 and Ki-67 using univariate and multivariate analyses. COX-2 expression was positive in 493 (57.3%) of invasive tumors. COX-2 was associated with favorable markers, but was not related to survival outcome by itself. However, COX-2 in proliferative tumors [COX-2(+)/Ki-67(+)] were significantly associated with unfavorable factors and the worst survival, but COX-2 in non-proliferative tumors [COX-2(+)/Ki-67(−)] showed significantly favorable parameters and better outcomes. COX-2(−)/Ki-67(any) showed intermediate prognosis. The statistical significance was maintained in stage-matched and multivariate analyses. The results of present study suggest that COX-2 expression is a common event in breast cancers and may play in a different ways by the proliferation status of the tumor cells. Further studies should be carried out to verify the role of COX-2 by proliferative conditions of breast tumor cells.


Breast neoplasms Cyclooxygenase-2 Proliferation Ki-67 Prognosis Progression 



A major part of this study was presented at the 34th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, Poster session, December 6-10, 2011, in San Antonio, TX, USA. This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, and in part by a grant-in-aid from Sanofi-Aventis Pharmaceutical Co. and Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co.

Conflicts of interest

The authors have declared no potential conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byeong-Woo Park
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seho Park
    • 1
  • Hyung Seok Park
    • 1
  • Ja Seung Koo
    • 3
  • Woo Ick Yang
    • 3
  • Jun Sang Lee
    • 1
  • Hyewon Hwang
    • 1
  • Seung Il Kim
    • 1
  • Kyong Sik Lee
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical ScienceYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of PathologyYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryPochon CHA University College of MedicineSeongnamKorea

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