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Analysis of the presence of cutaneous and mucosal papillomavirus types in ductal lavage fluid, milk and colostrum to evaluate its role in breast carcinogenesis

  • Massimiliano Cazzaniga
  • Tarik Gheit
  • Chiara Casadio
  • Noureen Khan
  • Debora Macis
  • Francesco Valenti
  • Mara Jo Miller
  • Bakary S. Sylla
  • Suminori Akiba
  • Bernardo Bonanni
  • Andrea Decensi
  • Umberto Veronesi
  • Massimo Tommasino
Brief Report

Abstract

Several independent studies have presented evidence for the involvement of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in the aetiology of human breast cancer, while others have reported the opposite findings. Here, we have analysed by a high sensitive multiplex PCR-based method the prevalence of alpha mucosal and beta cutaneous HPV DNA in 90 ductal lavages, colostrum and milk. Ten of the 70 DLs analyzed (14%) contained a single or multiple beta HPV types, while DNA from mucosal high-risk HPV types was detected in only one sample (1/70). A strong reduction of HPV positivity in DL fluids was observed in 45 specimens collected after removal of the superficial layers of the nipple epidermis. All DLs were negative for the mucosal low-risk HPV types 6 and 11. Finally, HPV positivity was low in colostrum and milk. Our data show that DNA of alpha mucosa and beta cutaneous HPV types are rarely present in the breast fluids and suggest that a direct role of HPV in breast carcinogenesis is unlikely.

Keywords

HPV Breast cancer Ductal lavage Breast fluids 

Notes

Acknowledgement

We are grateful to all the members of our laboratory for their cooperation. The study was partially supported by grants from the European Union “INCA” (LSHC-2005-018704), the Association for International Cancer Research, La Ligue Contre le Cancer (Comité du Rhône and Comité de la Drôme).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massimiliano Cazzaniga
    • 1
  • Tarik Gheit
    • 2
  • Chiara Casadio
    • 1
  • Noureen Khan
    • 3
  • Debora Macis
    • 1
  • Francesco Valenti
    • 1
  • Mara Jo Miller
    • 1
  • Bakary S. Sylla
    • 2
  • Suminori Akiba
    • 3
  • Bernardo Bonanni
    • 1
  • Andrea Decensi
    • 4
  • Umberto Veronesi
    • 1
  • Massimo Tommasino
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of ChemopreventionEuropean Institute of OncologyMilanItaly
  2. 2.Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on CancerWorld Health OrganizationLyon Cedex 08France
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive MedicineKagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesKagoshimaJapan
  4. 4.Ospedali GallieraGenoaItaly

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