Distribution and significance of caveolin 2 expression in normal breast and invasive breast cancer: an immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis
- 284 Downloads
The aims of this study were to define the distribution of caveolin 2 (CAV2) in frozen and formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) normal breast samples and the significance of CAV2 expression in breast cancer.
Caveolin 2 distribution in frozen and paraffin-embedded whole tissue sections of normal breast was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, in conjunction with antibodies to define luminal epithelial cells (oestrogen receptor and cytokeratin 8/18) and myoepithelial/ basal cells (cytokeratins 14 and 5/6, p63 and smooth muscle actin). CAV2 expression was also immunohistochemically analysed in two independent cohorts of invasive breast carcinomas (n = 245 and n = 418).
In normal breast, CAV2 was expressed in myoepithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and adipocytes. Luminal epithelial cells showed no or only negligible staining. CAV2 expression was observed in 9.6% of all breast cancers and was strongly correlated with high histological grade, lack of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and cyclin D1 expression, and positivity for epidermal growth factor receptor, basal markers, p53 expression, and high proliferation index. Furthermore, CAV2 expression was significantly associated with basal-like immunophenotype and proved to be a prognostic factor for breast cancer-specific survival on univariate analysis.
Our results demonstrate that CAV2 is preferentially expressed in basal-like cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Further in vitro studies are required to determine whether CAV2 has oncogenic properties or is only a surrogate marker of basal-like carcinomas.
KeywordsCaveolin Basal-like breast cancer Prognosis Western blot Immunohistochemistry
This study was funded in part by Breakthrough Breast Cancer. The Genetic Pathology Evaluation Centre is funded in part through an unrestricted educational grant from Sanofi-Aventis. We thank the Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, for provision of normal breast reduction mammoplasties.
- 16.Engelman JA, Zhang XL, Lisanti MP (1999) Sequence and detailed organization of the human caveolin-1 and -2 genes located near the D7S522 locus (7q31.1). Methylation of a CpG island in the 5′ promoter region of the caveolin-1 gene in human breast cancer cell lines. FEBS Lett 448:221–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar