Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 110, Issue 1, pp 9–17 | Cite as

Depression, quality of life and breast cancer: a review of the literature

  • M. ReichEmail author
  • A. Lesur
  • C. Perdrizet-Chevallier


Depression is misdiagnosed and undertreated among breast cancer population. Risk factors for depression in the 5 years after diagnosis are related more to the patient rather than to the disease or its treatment. The breast cancer stage (early and advanced) is not statistically significant in terms of rates of psychosocial distress except for recurrence. Risk factors of depression might impair quality of life such as fatigue, past history or recent episode of depression after the onset of cancer, cognitive attitudes of helplessness/hopelessness, resignation. Body image impairment from mastectomy and sexuality aftermath generates higher rates of mood disorders. The link between increased risk of breast cancer and depression is controversial among the literature. Some studies suggest a protective factor, others find a relation between stress, immunity and cancer occurrence or even mortality. Breast cancer survivors report a higher prevalence of mild to moderate depression with a lower quality of life in all areas except for family functioning. Treatment of depression in breast cancer women improves their quality of life and may increase longevity. Antidepressant medications remain the cornerstone of depression treatment. The hypothetical link between their prescription and increased breast cancer risk is not supported by literature’s data.


Breast cancer Depression Mood disorders Quality of life 


  1. 1.
    Ferlay J, Autier P, Boniol M et al (2007) Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol 18(3):581–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Porter LS, Clayton MF, Belyea M et al (2006) Predicting negative mood state and personal growth in African American and White long-term breast cancer survivors. Ann Behav Med 31:195–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deshields T, Tibbs T, Fan MY, Taylor M (2006) Differences in patterns of depression after treatment for breast cancer. Psychooncology 15:398–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meyerowitz BE (1980) Psychosocial correlates of breast cancer and its treatments. Psychol Bull 87(1):108–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baucom DH, Porter LS, Kirby JS et al (2006) Psychosocial issues confronting young women with breast cancer. Breast Dis 23:103–113Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spiegel D (1997) Psychosocial aspects of breast cancer treatment. Semin Oncol 1(Suppl 1):S1.36–S1.47Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Derogatis LR, Morrow GR, Fetting J et al (1983) The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients. JAMA 249(6):751–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harter M, Reuter K, Aschenbrenner A et al (2001) Psychiatric disorders and associated factors in cancer: results of an interview study with patients in inpatient, rehabilitation and outpatient treatment. Eur J Cancer 37(11):1385–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zabora J, BrintzenhofeSzoc K, Curbow B, Hooker C, Piantadosi S (2001) The prevalence of psychological distress by cancer site. Psychooncology 10(1):19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grabsch B, Clarke DM, Love A, McKenzie DP, Snyder RD, Bloch S et al (2006) Psychological morbidity and quality of life in women with advanced breast cancer: a cross-sectional survey. Palliat Support Care 4(1):47–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burgess C, Cornelius V, Love S, Graham J, Richards M, Ramirez A (2005) Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study. BMJ 330:702–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Okamura H, Watanabe T, Narabayashi M, Katsumata N, Ando M, Adachi I et al (2000) Psychological distress following first recurrence of disease in patients with breast cancer: prevalence and risk factors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 61:131–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fallowfield LJ, Hall A, Maguire GP, Baum M (1990) Psychological outcomes of different treatment policies in women with early breast cancer outside a clinical trial. BMJ 301(6752):575–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fulton CL (1997) The physical and psychological symptoms experienced by patients with metastatic breast cancer before death. Eur J Cancer Care 6(4):262–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kathol RG, Mutgi A, Williams J, Clamon G, Noyes Rjr (1990) Diagnosis of major depression in cancer patients according to four sets of criteria. Am J Psychiatry 147:1021–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van’t Spijker A, Trijsburg RW, Duivenvoorden HJ (1997) Psychological sequelae of cancer diagnosis: a meta-analytical review of 58 studies after 1980. Psychosom Med 59:280–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ramirez AJ, Richards MA, Jarrett SR, Fentiman IS (1995) Can mood disorder in women with breast cancer be identified preoperatively? Br J Cancer 72(6):1509–1512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lansky SB, Herrmann CA, Ets-Hokin EG, DasGupta TK, Wilbanks GD, Hendrickson FR (1985) Absence of major depressive disorder in female cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 3:1553–1560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Massie MJ, Holland JC (1990) Depression and the cancer patient. J Clin Psychiatry 51(Suppl 7):12–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aapro M, Cull A (1999) Depression in breast cancer patients: the need for treatment. Ann Oncol 10:627–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Somerset W, Stout SC, Miller AH et al (2004) Breast cancer and depression. Oncology (Williston Park) 18(8):1021–1034Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maguire GP, Lee EG, Bevington DJ, Kuchemann CS, Crabtree RJ, Cornell CE (1978) Psychiatric problems in the first year after mastectomy. BMJ 1:963–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greenberg DB (2004) Barriers to the treatment of depression in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 32:127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mermelstein HT, Lesko L (1992) Depression in patients with cancer. Psychooncology 1:199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ibbotson T, Maguire P, Selby P, Priestman T, Wallace L (1994) Screening for anxiety and depression in cancer patients: the effects of disease and treatment. Eur J Cancer 30A(1):37–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Razavi D, Delvaux N, Farvacques C, Robaye E (1990) Screening for adjustment disorders and major depressive disorders in cancer in-patients. Br J Psychiatry 156:79–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Golden-Kreutz DM, Andersen BL (2004) Depressive symptoms after breast cancer surgery: relationships with global, cancer-related, and life event stress. Psychooncology 13:211–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacques JM (1998) The black bile in Greek Antiquity: medicine and literature. Rev Étud Anc 100(1–2):217–234Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McKenna MC, Zevon MA, Corn B, Rounds J (1999) Psychosocial factors and the development of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol 18(5):520–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Duijts SF, Zeegers MP, Borne BV (2003) The association between stressful life events and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 107(6):1023–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ollonen P, Lehtonen J, Eskelinen M (2005) Stressful and adverse life experiences in patients with breast symptoms; a prospective case-control study in Kupio, Finland. Anticancer Res 25(1B):531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maunsell E, Brisson J, Mondor M, Verreault R, Deschcnes L (2001) Stressful life events and survival after breast cancer. Psychosom Med 63(2):306–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Graham J, Ramirez A, Love S, Richards M, Burgess C (2002) Stressful life experiences and risk of relapse of breast cancer: observational cohort study. BMJ 324(7351):1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ell K, Sanchez K, Vourlekis B, Lee PJ, Dwight-Johson M, Lagomasino I et al (2005) Depression, correlates of depression, and receipt of depression care among low-income women with breast or gynecologic cancer. J Clin Oncol 23(13):3052–3060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dowsett SM, Saul JL, Butow PN, Dunn SM, Boyer MJ, Findlow R et al (2000) Communication styles in the cancer consultation: preferences for a patient-centred approach. Psychooncology 9(2):147–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gallo JJ, Armenian HK, Ford DE, Eaton WW, Khachaturian AS (2000) Major depression and cancer the 13-year follow-up of the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area sample (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11(8):751–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jacobs JR, Bovasso GB (2000) Early and chronic stress and their relation to breast cancer. Psychol Med 30(3):669–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lokugamage AU, Hotopf M, Hardy R, Mishra G, Butterworth S, Wadsworth ME et al (2006) Breast cancer in relation to childhood parental divorce and early adult psychiatric disorder in a British birth cohort. Psychol Med 36(9):1307–1312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Montazeri A, Jarvandi S, Ebrahimi M, Haghighat S, Ansari M (2004) The role of depression in the development of breast cancer: analysis of registry data from a single institute. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 5(3):316–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tercyak KP, Davis KM, Loffredo CA (2007) Behavioral risk factors among Black and White women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Psychooncology 16(3):224–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fredman L, Sexton M, Cui Y, Althuis M, Wehren L,Hornbeck P et al (1999) Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and screening mammography among women ages 50 and older. Prev Med 28(4):407–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nunes SO, Reiche EM, Morimoto HK, Matsuo T, Itano EN, Xavier EC et al (2002) Immune and hormonal activity in adults suffering from depression. Braz J Med Biol Res 35:581–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sephton SE, Sapolsky RM, Kraemer HC, Spiegel D (2000) Diurnal cortisol rhythm as a predictor of breast cancer survival. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:994–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fox BH (1989) Depressive symptoms and risk of cancer. JAMA 262(9):1231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ayres A, Hoon PW, Franzoni JB, Matheny KB, Cotanch PH, Takayanagi S (1994) Influence of mood and adjustment to cancer on compliance with chemotherapy among breast cancer patients. J Psychosom Res 38:393–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Desai MM, Bruce ML, Kasl SV (1999) The effects of major depression and phobia on stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Int J Psychiatry Med 29(1):29–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Watson M, Haviland JS, Greer S, Davidson J, Bliss JM (1999) Influence of psychological response on survival in breast cancer: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 354:1331–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hjerl K, Andersen EW, Keiding N, Mouridsen HT, Mortensen PB, Jorgensen T (2003) Depression as a prognostic factor for breast cancer mortality. Psychosomatics 44(1):24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chochinov HM, Wilson KG, Enns M, Lander S (1998) Depression, Hopelessness, and suicidal ideation in the terminally ill. Psychosomatics 39(4):366–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schairer C, Brown LM, Chen BE, Howard R, Lynch CF, Hall P et al (2006) Suicide after breast cancer: an international population-based study of 723,810 women. J Natl Cancer Inst 98(19):1416–1419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wong-Kim EC, Bloom JR (2005) Depression experienced by young women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Psychooncology 14(7):564–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Coates A, Glasziou P, McNeil D (1990) On the receiving end-III. Measurement of quality of life during cancer chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 1:213–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smith EM, Gomm SA, Dickens CM (2003) Assessing the independent contribution to quality of life from anxiety and depression in patients with advanced cancer. Palliat Med 17(6):509–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nyklicek I, Louwman WJ, Van Nierop PW, Wijnands CJ, Coebergh JW, Pop VJ (2003) Depression and the lower risk for breast cancer development in middle-aged women: a prospective study. Psychol Med 33(6):1111–1117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Aro AR, De Koning HJ, Schreck M, Henriksson M, Anttila A, Pukkala E (2005) Psychological risk factors of incidence of breast cancer: a prospective cohort study in Finland. Psychol Med 35(10):1515–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Morasso G, Costantini M, Viterbori P, Bonci F, Del Mastro L, Musso M et al (2001) Predicting mood disorders in breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 37:216–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Okamura M, Yamawaki S, Akechi T, Taniquchi K, Uchitomi Y (2005) Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence: prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Jpn J Clin Oncol 35(6):302–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kissane DW, Grabsch B, Love A, Clarke DM, Bloch S, Smith GC (2004) Psychiatric disorder in women with early stage and advanced breast cancer: a comparative analysis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 38(5):320–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Engel J, Kerr J, Schlesinger-Raab A, Eckel R, Sauer H, Holzel D (2003) Predictors of quality of life of breast cancer patients. Acta Oncol 42(7):710–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Badger TA, Braden CJ, Mishel MH, Longman A (2004) Depression burden, psychological adjustment, and quality of life in women with breast cancer: patterns over time. Res Nurs Health 27:19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yen JY, Ko CH, Yen CF, Yang MJ, Wu CY, Juan CH et al (2006) Quality of life, depression, and stress in breast cancer women outpatients receiving active therapy in Taiwan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 60(2):147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Weitzner MA, Meyers CA, Stuebing KK, Saleeba AK (1997) Relationship between quality of life and mood in long-term survivors of breast cancer treated with mastectomy. Support Care Cancer 5:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ganz PA, Guadagnoli E, Landrum MB, Lash TL, Rakowski W, Silliman RA (2003) Breast cancer in older women: quality of life and psychosocial adjustment in the 15 months after diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 21(21):4027–4033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mols F, Vingerhoets AJ, Coebergh JW, van de Poll-Franse LV (2005) Quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors: a systematic review. Eur J Cancer 41:2613–2619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tomich PL, Helgeson VS (2002) Five years later: a cross-sectional comparison of breast cancer survivors with healthy women. Psychooncology 11:154–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Montazeri A, Sajadian A, Ebrahimi M, Akbari ME (2005) Depression and the use of complementary medicine among breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 13(5):339–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Andritsch E, Dietmaier G, Hofmann G, Zloklikovots S, Samonigg H (2007) Global quality of life and its potential predictors in breast cancer patients: an exploratory study. Support Care Cancer 15(1):21–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Badger TA, Braden CJ, Mishel MH (2001) Depression burden, self-help interventions, and side effect experience in women receiving treatment for breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 28(3):567–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Avis NE, Crawford S, Manuel J (2005) Quality of life among younger women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 23(15):3322–3330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Moorman PG, Grubber JM, Millikan RC, Newman B (2003) Antidepressant medications and their association with invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast. Epidemiology 14(3):307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kurdyak PA, Gnam WH, Streiner DL (2002) Antidepressants and the risk of breast cancer. Can J Psychiatry 47(10):966–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Steingart A, Cotterchio M, Kreiger N, Sloan M (2003) Antidepressant medication use and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 32:961–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cotterchio M, Kreiger N, Darlington G, Steingart A (2000) Antidepressant medication use and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 151(10):951–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sharpe CR, Collet JP, Belzile E, Hanley JA, Boivin JF (2002) The effects of tricyclic antidepressants on breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 86(1):92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tworoger SS, Eliassen AH, Rosner B, Sluss P, Hankinson SE (2004) Plasma prolactin concentrations and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res 64:6814–6819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fulton-Kehoe D, Rossing MA, Rutter C, Mandelson MT, Weiss NS (2006) Use of antidepressant medications in relation to the incidence of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 94:1071–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chien C, LI CI, Heckbert SR, Malone KE, Boudreau DM, Daling JR (2006) Antidepressant use and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 95(2):131–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gonzalez-Perez A, Garcia Rodriguez LA (2005) Breast cancer risk among users of antidepressant medications. Epidemiology 16(1):101–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Moorman PG, Grubber JM, Millikan RC, Newman B (2003) Antidepressant medications and their association with invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast. Epidemiology 14(3):307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lawlor DA, Juni P, Ebrahim S, Egger M (2003) Systematic review of the epidemiologic and trial evidence of an association between antidepressant medication and breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 56(2):155–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wang PS, Walker AM, Tsuang MT, Orav EJ, Levin R, Avorn J (2001) Antidepressant use and the risk of breast cancer: a non-association. J Clin Epidemiol 54(7):728–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bahl S, Cotterchio M, Kreiger N (2003) Use of antidepressant medications and the possible association with breast cancer risk. A review. Psychother Psychosom 72(4):185–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Goodwin PJ, Leszcz M, Ennis M, Koopmans J, Vincent L, Guther H et al (2001) The effect of group psychosocial support on survival in metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 345(24):1719–1726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goodwin PJ (2005) Support groups in advanced breast cancer. Cancer 104(11 Suppl):2596–2601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Smedslund G, Ringdal GI (2004) Meta-analysis of the effects of psychosocial interventions on survival time in cancer patients. J Psychosom Res 57(2):123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chow E, TsaoMN, Harth T (2004) Does psychosocial intervention improve survival in cancer? A meta-analysis. Palliat Med 18(1):25–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kissane DW, Grabsch B, Clarke DM, Smith GC, Love AW, Bloch S et al (2007) Supportive-expressive group therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer: survival and psychosocial outcome from a randomized controlled trial. Psychooncology 16(4):277–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Arving C, Sjoden PO, Bergh J, Lindstrom AT, Wasteson E, Glimelius B et al (2006) Satisfaction, utilisation and perceived benefit of individual psychosocial support for breast cancer patients—a randomised study of nurse versus psychologist interventions. Patient Educ Couns 62(2):235–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Greer S, Moorey S, Baruch JD, Watson M, Robertson BM, Mason A et al (1992) Adjuvant psychological therapy for patients with cancer: a prospective randomised trial. BMJ 304(6828):675–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Montazeri A, Jarvandi S, Haghighat S, Vahdani M, Sajadian A, Ebrahimi M et al (2001) Anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients before and after participation in a cancer support group. Patient Educ Couns 45(3):195–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Owen JE, Klapow JC, Roth DL, Nabell L, Tucker DC (2004) Improving the effectiveness of adjuvant psychological treatment for women with breast cancer: the feasibility of providing online support. Psychooncology 13(4):281–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Antoni MH, Lehman JM, Kilbourn KM, Boyers AE, Culver JL, Alferi SM et al (2001) Cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention decreases the prevalence of depression and enhances benefit finding among women under treatment for early-stage breast cancer. Health Psychol 20(1):20–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shim EJ, Mehnert A, Koyama A, Cho SJ, Inui H, Paik NS et al (2006) Health-related quality of life in breast cancer: A cross-cultural survey of German, Japanese, and South Korean patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 99(3):341–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hegel MT, Moore CP, Collins ED et al (2006) Distress, psychiatric syndromes, and impairment of function in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Cancer 107(12):2924–2931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mehnert A, Koch U (2007) Prevalence of acute and post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid mental disorders in breast cancer patients during primary cancer care: a prospective study. Psychooncology 16(3):181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kissane DW, Clarke DM, Ikin J et al (1998) Psychological morbidity and quality of life in Australian women with early-stage breast cancer: a cross-sectional survey. Med J Aust 169(4):192–196PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psycho-oncology Unit, Centre Oscar LambretLilleFrance
  2. 2.Senology Department, Centre Alexis VautrinVandoeuvre-Les-NancyFrance
  3. 3.IHPACCA-CMP ExelmansBar Le DucFrance

Personalised recommendations