Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 109, Issue 1, pp 143–155 | Cite as

Glutathione S-transferase M1 and P1 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women

  • Lori C. Sakoda
  • Christie R. Blackston
  • Kan Xue
  • Jennifer A. Doherty
  • Roberta M. Ray
  • Ming Gang Lin
  • Helge Stalsberg
  • Dao Li Gao
  • Ziding Feng
  • David B. Thomas
  • Chu Chen


Enzymes encoded by the glutathione S-tranferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and pi 1 (GSTP1) genes, which are expressed in breast tissue, catalyze the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles. Reduced enzyme activity, due to carriage of the GSTM1 deletion or the GSTP1 Ile105Val Val allele, may therefore affect susceptibility to breast cancer and related conditions. In a case-control study of Chinese women, we examined whether these polymorphisms were associated with risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions. Women diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 615) or fibrocystic breast conditions (n = 467) were compared to women without clinical breast disease (n = 878). We also examined whether these associations differed by menopausal status or by presence of proliferation in the extra-tumoral epithelium among women with breast cancer and in lesions among women with fibrocystic conditions. No overall association of either GST polymorphism with risk of breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions was observed. There was some evidence of slightly elevated cancer risk associated with carriage of the GSTM1 null genotype and at least one GSTP1 105–Val allele (OR = 1.33, 95% CI, 0.99–1.80), compared to carriage of the GSTM1 non-null and GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes. This relationship was stronger in women who had breast cancer with extra-tumoral tissue proliferation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.03–3.04). Our results suggest that GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes do not individually influence susceptibility to breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions. The observed increased risk of breast cancer associated with joint carriage of the GSTM1 null genotype and GSTP1 105–Val allele needs confirmation in other studies.


Breast cancer Chinese Fibrocystic breast conditions Glutathione S-transferase Polymorphism 



Glutathione S-transferase


Breast self examination


Polymerase chain reaction


Odds ratio


Confidence interval




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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lori C. Sakoda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christie R. Blackston
    • 3
  • Kan Xue
    • 4
  • Jennifer A. Doherty
    • 1
  • Roberta M. Ray
    • 5
  • Ming Gang Lin
    • 6
    • 7
  • Helge Stalsberg
    • 8
  • Dao Li Gao
    • 9
  • Ziding Feng
    • 10
  • David B. Thomas
    • 2
    • 11
  • Chu Chen
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Zhongshan HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  6. 6.Program in Cancer Biology, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  7. 7.Division of Human BiologyFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  8. 8.Institute of Medical BiologyUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  9. 9.Department of Epidemiology, Zhongshan Hospital Cancer CenterFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  10. 10.Program in Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  11. 11.Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health SciencesFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA

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