Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 99, Issue 2, pp 229–233

Flame-broiled food, NAT2acetylator phenotype, and breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease

  • Lisa Gallicchio
  • Meghan A. McSorley
  • Craig J. Newschaffer
  • Lucy W. Thuita
  • Pedram Argani
  • Sandra C. Hoffman
  • Kathy J. Helzlsouer
Epidemiology

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to examine the association between flame-broiled food consumption, a source of heterocyclic amine exposure, and the development of breast cancer among cohort of women with benign breast disease (BBD). The variation of the association by acetylation phenotype, as determined by the genotypes of selected N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzymes, was also examined.

Methods

Among participants in an ongoing cohort study, 1187 women reported having a breast biopsy for BBD and completed a food frequency questionnaire. NAT2 G857A, NAT2 T341C, and NAT2 G590A genotypes were determined using DNA extracted from blood specimens collected in 1989. Incident cases of breast cancer were identified through linkage of the cohort participants with the Washington County Cancer Registry and the Maryland State Cancer Registry. Follow-up for the BBD cohort began at study entry in 1989 and ended on April 28, 2003.

Results

Of the women in this study, 77 subsequently developed breast cancer. Results showed that, among rapid acetylators, flame-broiled food intake was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 6.46). No association was observed between flame-broiled food intake and breast cancer among slow acetylators (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.39, 1.43).

Conclusions

These findings suggest that flame-broiled food may be a modifiable risk factor for the progression of BBD to invasive breast cancer among women who have genotypes consistent with rapid acetylation.

Keywords

benign breast disease breast cancer flame-broiled food N-acetylation prospective cohort 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hartmann LC, Sellers TA, Frost MH, Lingle WL, Degnim AC, Ghosh K, Vierkant RA, Maloney SD, Pankratz VS, Hillman DW, Suman VJ, Johnson J, Blake C, Tlsty T, Vachon CM, Melton LJ, Visscher DW: Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 353:229–237, 2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Layton DW, Bogen KT, Knize MG, Hatch FT, Johnson VM, Felton JS: Cancer risk of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods: an analysis and implications for research. Carcinogenesis 16:39–52, 1995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Minchin RF, Reeves PT, Teitel CH, McManus ME, Mojarrabi B, Ilett KF, Kadlubar FF:N-and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens by human monomorphic and polymorphic acetyltransferases expressed in COS-1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 185;839–844, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hein DW: Acetylator genotype and arylamine-induced carcinogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 948:37–66, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nagao M, Sugimura T: Carcinogenic factors in food with relevance to colon cancer development. Mutat Res 290:43–51, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Felton JS, Knize MG, Bennett LM, Malfatti MA, Colvin ME, Kulp KS: Impact of environmental exposures on the mutagenicity/carcinogenicity of heterocyclic amines. Toxicology 198:135–145, 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deitz AC, Zheng W, Leff MA,Gross M, Wen WQ, Doll MA, Xiao GH, Folsom AR, Hein DW:N-Acetyltransferase-2 genetic polymorphism, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:905–910, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gertig DM, Hankinson SE, Hough H, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Kelsey KT, Hunter DJ: N-acetyl transferase 2 genotypes, meat intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 80:13–17, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Delfino RJ, Sinha R, Smith C, West J, White E, Lin HJ, Liao SY, Gim JS, Ma HL, Butler J, Anton-Culver H: Breast cancer, heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat and N-acetyltransferase 2 genotype. Carcinogenesis 21:607–615, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Huang HY, Hoffman SC, Strickland PT, Brock JW, Burse VW, Needham LL, Bell DA, Lavigne JA, Yager JD, Comstock GW: Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and the subsequent development of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:525–532, 1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Platz EA, De Marzo AM, Erlinger TP, Rifai N, Visvanathan K, Hoffman SC, Helzlsouer KJ: No association between pre-diagnostic plasma C-reactive protein concentration and subsequent prostate cancer. Prostate 59:393–400, 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gallicchio L, McSorley MA, Newschaffer CJ, Thuita LW, Huang HY, Hoffman SC, Helzlsouer KJ: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase polymorphisms, and the risk of developing breast cancer among women with benign breast disease. Cancer (in press)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klintschar M, Neuhuber Fevaluation of an alkaline lysis method for the extraction of DNA from whole blood and forensic stains for STR analysis. J Forensic Sci 45:669–673, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alberg AJ, Daudt A, Huang HY, Hoffman SC, Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ, Strickland PT, Bell DA: N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotypes, cigarette smoking, and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 28:187–193, 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa Gallicchio
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Meghan A. McSorley
    • 1
  • Craig J. Newschaffer
    • 1
  • Lucy W. Thuita
    • 1
  • Pedram Argani
    • 2
  • Sandra C. Hoffman
    • 1
  • Kathy J. Helzlsouer
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyThe Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyThe Johns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Prevention and Research Center, The Weinberg Center for Women’s Health and MedicineMercy Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Mercy Medical Center, Prevention and Research CenterBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations