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Brain Topography

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 33–45 | Cite as

Ethics of the Electrified Mind: Defining Issues and Perspectives on the Principled Use of Brain Stimulation in Medical Research and Clinical Care

  • Laura Y. Cabrera
  • Emily L. Evans
  • Roy H. HamiltonEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice.

Keywords

Neuroethics Medical ethics Brain stimulation Deep brain stimulation Transcranial direct current stimulation Transcranial magnetic stimulation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Y. Cabrera
    • 1
  • Emily L. Evans
    • 2
  • Roy H. Hamilton
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.National Core for NeuroethicsThe University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory for Cognition and Neural Stimulation, Department of NeurologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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