Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 172, Issue 1, pp 149–166 | Cite as

Daytime Temporal Variation of Surface-Layer Parameters and Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budget in Topographically Complex Terrain Around Umiam, India

  • Nilamoni BarmanEmail author
  • Arup Borgohain
  • S. S. Kundu
  • Rakesh Roy
  • Biswajit Saha
  • Raman Solanki
  • N. V. P. Kiran Kumar
  • P. L. N. Raju
Notes and Comments


We present the temporal variation of surface-layer parameters and the turbulence kinetic energy budget over complex terrain during daytime. Data from three-dimensional fast response sonic anemometers at heights 6 m, 18 m, and 30 m above the ground are used for the analysis. Mountainous topography induces wind-direction variability over the measurement site throughout the day, which significantly influences the diurnal evolution of sensible heat flux, momentum flux, and turbulence kinetic energy. The increase and decrease of turbulence kinetic energy rely on the various production and consumption terms. Buoyancy dominates in the morning whereas in the afternoon both buoyancy and shear production contribute equally for the turbulence kinetic energy. The turbulence kinetic energy budget is also influenced by horizontal advection at the station. The correlation between turbulent decay and buoyancy (shear production) is negative (positive) in free convective conditions in the morning, whereas no correlation is observed for mixed convective conditions in the afternoon.


Complex topography Residual transport Surface-layer parameters Turbulent flux Turbulence kinetic energy budget 



This work has been carried out as part of the IGBP-NOBLE project. We thank the Director Space Physics Laboratory, and Project Director, ISRO-IGBP program office, ISRO for their valuable support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Space and Atmospheric Science DivisionNorth-Eastern Space Applications CentreShillongIndia
  2. 2.Physics DepartmentNational Institute of Technology, AgartalaAgartalaIndia
  3. 3.Maharaja Bir Bikram UniversityAgartalaIndia
  4. 4.National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT)Chiang MaiThailand
  5. 5.Space Physics LaboratoryVikram Sarabhai Space CentreTrivandrumIndia

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