Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 168, Issue 1, pp 103–126 | Cite as

Verification of a One-Dimensional Model of \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) Atmospheric Transport Inside and Above a Forest Canopy Using Observations at the Norunda Research Station

  • Ivan KovaletsEmail author
  • Rodolfo Avila
  • Meelis Mölder
  • Sophia Kovalets
  • Anders Lindroth
Research Article


A model of \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) atmospheric transport in vegetated canopies is tested against measurements of the flow, as well as \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) concentrations at the Norunda research station located inside a mixed pine–spruce forest. We present the results of simulations of wind-speed profiles and \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) concentrations inside and above the forest canopy with a one-dimensional model of profiles of the turbulent diffusion coefficient above the canopy accounting for the influence of the roughness sub-layer on turbulent mixing according to Harman and Finnigan (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 129:323–351, 2008; hereafter HF08). Different modelling approaches are used to define the turbulent exchange coefficients for momentum and concentration inside the canopy: (1) the modified HF08 theory—numerical solution of the momentum and concentration equations with a non-constant distribution of leaf area per unit volume; (2) empirical parametrization of the turbulent diffusion coefficient using empirical data concerning the vertical profiles of the Lagrangian time scale and root-mean-square deviation of the vertical velocity component. For neutral, daytime conditions, the second-order turbulence model is also used. The flexibility of the empirical model enables the best fit of the simulated \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) concentrations inside the canopy to the observations, with the results of simulations for daytime conditions inside the canopy layer only successful provided the respiration fluxes are properly considered. The application of the developed model for radiocarbon atmospheric transport released in the form of \(^{14}\hbox {CO}_{2}\) is presented and discussed.


Atmospheric transport Canopy turbulence Carbon transport Micrometeorology Radiocarbon 



The present work had been funded by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and by Posiva Oy. We gratefully acknowledge Alexander Sedletsky for help in retrieving measurement data from the NECC database ( Professor T. Foken and a second anonymous reviewer are gratefully acknowledged for their important comments and suggestions.


  1. Amiro BD (1990) Comparison of turbulence statistics within three boreal forest canopies. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 51:99–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arya SP (2001) Introduction to micrometeorology, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Avila R, Kovalets I (2016) Models of C-14 in the atmosphere over vegetated land and above a surface-water body. Technical report SKB R-15-09, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm, 47 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Aylor DE, Wang Y, Miller DR (1993) Intermittent wind close to the ground within a grass canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 66:427–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aylor DE (1990) The role of intermittent wind in the dispersal of fungal pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldocchi DD, Meyers TP (1988) Turbulence structure in a deciduous forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 43:345–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belcher S, Harman I, Finnigan J (2012) The wind in the willows: flows in forest canopies in complex terrain. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 44:479–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brunet Y, Finnigan JJ, Raupach MR (1994) A wind tunnel study of air flow in waving wheat: single-point velocity statistics. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 70:95–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cionco RM (1978) Analysis of canopy index values for various canopy densities. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 15:81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Denmead OT, Bradley EF (1987) On scalar transport in plant canopies. Irrig Sci 8:131–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Finnigan JJ (1979) Turbulence in waving wheat. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 16:181–211Google Scholar
  12. Finnigan JJ (2000) Turbulence in plant canopies. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 32:519–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Foken T (2017) Micrometeorology, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foken T, Meixner FX, Falge E, Zetzsch C, Serafimovich A, Bargsten A, Behrendt T, Biermann T, Breuninger C, Dix S, Gerken T, Hunner M, Lehmann-Pape L, Hens K, Jocher G, Kesselmeier J, Lüers J, Mayer J-C, Moravek A, Plake D, Riederer M, Rütz F, Scheibe M, Siebicke L, Sörgel M, Staudt K, Trebs I, Tsokankunku A, Welling M, Wolff V, Zhu Z (2012) Coupling processes and exchange of energy and reactive and non-reactive trace gases at a forest site—results of the EGER experiment. Atmos Chem Phys 12:1923–1950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gardiner BA (1994) Wind and wind forces in a plantation spruce forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 67:161–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garratt JR (1980) Surface influence upon vertical profiles in the atmospheric near-surface layer. Q J Roy Meteorol Soc 106:803–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garratt JR (1994) The atmospheric boundary layer. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Golder D (1972) Relations among stability parameters in the surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 3:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grelle A, Lindroth A, Mölder M (1999) Seasonal variation of boreal forest surface conductance and evaporation. Agric For Meteorol 98–99:563–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harman IN, Finnigan JJ (2007) A simple unified theory for flow in the canopy and roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 123:339–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harman IN, Finnigan JJ (2008) Scalar concentration profiles in the canopy and roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 129:323–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haverd V, Leuning R, Griffith D, van Gorsel E, Cuntz M (2009) The turbulent Lagrangian time scale in forest canopies constrained by fluxes, concentrations and source distributions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 130:209–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Högström U, Hunt JCR, Smedman AS (2002) Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 103:101–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Inoue E (1963) On the turbulent structure of airflow within crop canopies. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 41:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jansson PE, Cienciala E, Grelle A, Kellner E, Lindahl A, Lundblad M (1999) Simulated evapotranspiration from the Norunda forest stand during the growing season of a dry year. Agric Forest Meteorol 98–99:621–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Katul GG, Albertson JD (1998) An investigation of higher-order closure models for a forested canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 89:47–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Katul GG, Albertson JD (1999) Modeling CO\(_2\) sources, sinks, and fluxes within a forest canopy. J Geophys Res 104:6081–6091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Katul GG, Chang WH (1999) Principal length scales in second-order closure models for canopy turbulence. J Appl Meteorol 38:1631–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kruijt B, Malhi Y, Lloyd J, Norbre AD, Miranda AC, Pereira MGP, Culf A, Grace J (2000) Turbulence statistics above and within two Amazon rain forest canopies. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 94:297–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lundin LC, Halldin S, Lindroth A, Cienciala E, Grelle A, Hjelm P, Kellner E, Lundberg A, Mölder M, Morén A-S, Nord T, Seibert J, Stähli M (1999) Continuous long-term measurements of soil–plant–atmosphere variables at a forest site. Agric Forest Meteorol 98–99:53–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lagergren F, Eklundh L, Grelle A, Lundblad M, Mölder M, Lankreijer H, Lindroth A (2005) Net primary production and light use efficiency in a mixed coniferous forest in Sweden. Plant Cell Environ 28:412–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lankreijer HJM, Lindroth A, Strömgren M, Kulmala L, Pumpanen J (2009) Forest floor CO\(_2\) flux measurements with a dark-light chamber. Biogeosci Discuss 6:9301–9329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Le Dizès S, Maro D, Hébert D, Gonze MA, Aulagnier C (2012) TOCATTA: a dynamic transfer model of \(^{14}\)C from the atmosphere to soil–plant systems. J Environ Radioact 105:48–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Limer LMC, Le Dizès-Maurel S, Klos R, Maro D, Nordén M (2015) Impacts of \(^{14}\)C discharges from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant on surrounding vegetation: comparison between grass field measurements and TOCATTA-\(\chi \) and SSPAM14C model computations. J Environ Radioact 147:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lindroth A, Grelle A, Moren AS (1998) Long-term measurements of boreal forest carbon balance reveal large temperature sensitivity. Global Change Biol 4:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mobbs S, Smith K, Thorne M, Smith G (2014) Modelling approaches to C-14 in soil–plant systems and aquatic environments. Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Rep. No. 2104:30, Accessed 5 May 2016
  37. Mölder M, Lindroth A, Halldin S (2000) Water vapor, \(\text{ CO }_{2}\), and temperature profiles in and above a forest—accuracy assessment of an unattended measurement system. J Atmos Ocean Technol 17:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mölder M, Grelle A, Lindroth A, Halldin S (1999) Flux-profile relationships over a boreal forest—roughness sublayer corrections. Agric For Meteorol 98–99:645–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Morén AS, Lindroth A, Flower-Ellis J, Cienciala E, Mölder M (2000) Branch transpiration of pine and spruce scaled to tree and canopy using needle biomass distributions. Trees 14:384–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raupach MR (1989) A practical Lagrangian method for relating scalar concentrations to source distributions in vegetation canopies. Q J Roy Meteorol Soc 115:609–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shapkalijevski M, Moene AF, Ouwersloot HG, Patton EG, Vilà-Guerau de Arellano J (2016) Influence of canopy seasonal changes on turbulence parameterization within the roughness sublayer over an orchard canopy. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 55:1391–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shapkalijevski MM, Ouwersloot HG, Moene AF, de Arrellano JVG (2017) Integrating canopy and large-scale effects in the convective boundary-layer dynamics during the CHATS experiment. Atmos Chem Phys 17:1623–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shaw RH, Den Hartog G, Neumann HH (1988) Influence of foliar density and thermal stability on profiles of Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity in a deciduous forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 45:391–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Siqueira MB, Katul GG (2010) An analytical model for the distribution of CO\(_2\) sources and sinks, fluxes, and mean concentration within the roughness sub-layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 135:31–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Staudt K, Falge E, Pyles RD, Paw UKT, Foken T (2010) Sensitivity and predictive uncertainty of the ACASA model at a spruce forest site. Biogeoscience 7:3685–3705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vogel E (2013) The temporal and spatial variability of soil respiration in boreal forests. A case study of Norunda forest, Central Sweden. Student thesis series INES nr 284. Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sweden, 2013Google Scholar
  47. Wilson JD, Ward DP, Thurtell GW, Kidd GE (1982) Statistics of atmospheric turbulence within and above a corn canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 24:495–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wilson JD (1988) A second order closure model for flow through vegetation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 42:371–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ukrainian Center for Environmental and Water ProjectsKievUkraine
  2. 2.Institute of Mathematical Machines and Systems Problems NAS of UkraineKievUkraine
  3. 3.Facilia ABBrommaSweden
  4. 4.Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems AnalysisLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations