# Verification of a One-Dimensional Model of \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) Atmospheric Transport Inside and Above a Forest Canopy Using Observations at the Norunda Research Station

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## Abstract

A model of \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) atmospheric transport in vegetated canopies is tested against measurements of the flow, as well as \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) concentrations at the Norunda research station located inside a mixed pine–spruce forest. We present the results of simulations of wind-speed profiles and \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) concentrations inside and above the forest canopy with a one-dimensional model of profiles of the turbulent diffusion coefficient above the canopy accounting for the influence of the roughness sub-layer on turbulent mixing according to Harman and Finnigan (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 129:323–351, 2008; hereafter HF08). Different modelling approaches are used to define the turbulent exchange coefficients for momentum and concentration inside the canopy: (1) the modified HF08 theory—numerical solution of the momentum and concentration equations with a non-constant distribution of leaf area per unit volume; (2) empirical parametrization of the turbulent diffusion coefficient using empirical data concerning the vertical profiles of the Lagrangian time scale and root-mean-square deviation of the vertical velocity component. For neutral, daytime conditions, the second-order turbulence model is also used. The flexibility of the empirical model enables the best fit of the simulated \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) concentrations inside the canopy to the observations, with the results of simulations for daytime conditions inside the canopy layer only successful provided the respiration fluxes are properly considered. The application of the developed model for radiocarbon atmospheric transport released in the form of \(^{14}\hbox {CO}_{2}\) is presented and discussed.

## Keywords

Atmospheric transport Canopy turbulence Carbon transport Micrometeorology Radiocarbon## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The present work had been funded by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and by Posiva Oy. We gratefully acknowledge Alexander Sedletsky for help in retrieving measurement data from the NECC database (http://dbnecc.nateko.lu.se). Professor T. Foken and a second anonymous reviewer are gratefully acknowledged for their important comments and suggestions.

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