Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 165, Issue 2, pp 295–310 | Cite as

Edge-to-Stem Variability in Wet-Canopy Evaporation From an Urban Tree Row

  • John T. Van StanII
  • Zachary Norman
  • Adrian Meghoo
  • Jan Friesen
  • Anke Hildebrandt
  • Jean-François Côté
  • S. Jeffrey Underwood
  • Gustavo Maldonado
Research Article
  • 237 Downloads

Abstract

Evaporation from wet-canopy (\(E_\mathrm{C}\)) and stem (\(E_\mathrm{S}\)) surfaces during rainfall represents a significant portion of municipal-to-global scale hydrologic cycles. For urban ecosystems, \(E_\mathrm{C}\) and \(E_\mathrm{S}\) dynamics play valuable roles in stormwater management. Despite this, canopy-interception loss studies typically ignore crown-scale variability in \(E_\mathrm{C}\) and assume (with few indirect data) that \(E_\mathrm{S}\) is generally \({<}2\%\) of total wet-canopy evaporation. We test these common assumptions for the first time with a spatially-distributed network of in-canopy meteorological monitoring and 45 surface temperature sensors in an urban Pinus elliottii tree row to estimate \(E_\mathrm{C}\) and \(E_\mathrm{S}\) under the assumption that crown surfaces behave as “wet bulbs”. From December 2015 through July 2016, 33 saturated crown periods (195 h of 5-min observations) were isolated from storms for determination of 5-min evaporation rates ranging from negligible to 0.67 \(\hbox {mm h}^{-1}\). Mean \(E_\mathrm{S}\) (0.10 \(\hbox {mm h}^{-1}\)) was significantly lower (\(p < 0.01\)) than mean \(E_\mathrm{C}\) (0.16 \(\hbox {mm h}^{-1}\)). But, \(E_\mathrm{S}\) values often equalled \(E_\mathrm{C}\) and, when scaled to trunk area using terrestrial lidar, accounted for 8–13% (inter-quartile range) of total wet-crown evaporation (\(E_\mathrm{S}+E_\mathrm{C}\) scaled to surface area). \(E_\mathrm{S}\) contributions to total wet-crown evaporation maximized at 33%, showing a general underestimate (by 2–17 times) of this quantity in the literature. Moreover, results suggest wet-crown evaporation from urban tree rows can be adequately estimated by simply assuming saturated tree surfaces behave as wet bulbs, avoiding problematic assumptions associated with other physically-based methods.

Keywords

Pinus elliottii Rainfall interception Tree surface temperature Urban forest Wet-canopy evaporation Wet-bulb temperature 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the US-NSF (EAR-1518726). Student support for Zachary Norman was provided by the Environmental Protection Division of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (EPD-WQ-5419). The authors thank the Georgia Southern University physical plant for assistance installing, maintaining and securing sensors within the canopy, and students Daniel Cirincione, Ravon Elam, Dylan Mesta, and Sandra Yankine for assistance with terrestrial lidar data collection and processing.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeographyGeorgia Southern UniversityStatesboroUSA
  2. 2.Department of Catchment HydrologyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Institute of GeoscienceFriedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany
  4. 4.Canadian Wood Fibre CentreNatural Resources CanadaQuébecCanada
  5. 5.Department of Civil Engineering and Construction ManagementGeorgia Southern UniversityStatesboroUSA
  6. 6.Office of the Vice President for ResearchCalifornia State UniversityLos AngelesUSA

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