Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 158, Issue 2, pp 229–255 | Cite as

A Comparative Analysis on the Response of a Wind-Turbine Model to Atmospheric and Terrain Effects

Article
  • 462 Downloads

Abstract

In a series of wind-tunnel experiments conducted at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, a wind-turbine model was exposed to three different thermal regimes (neutral, weakly stable and weakly convective flows) in three simple arrangements relevant to wind-farm applications: single turbine in the boundary-layer, aligned turbine-turbine, and an upwind three-dimensional sinusoidal hill aligned with the turbine. Results focus on the spatial evolution of large-scale motions developing over the different thermal and topographic boundary conditions, and on their influence on the mean and fluctuating angular velocity of the turbine rotor. As compared to the single turbine case, both the upwind hill and turbine caused a reduction in the mean angular velocity regardless of the thermal regime; the turbine angular velocity fluctuations always decreased with a turbine upwind, which depleted the energy of the large structures of the flow; however such fluctuations decreased (increased) under stably stratified (convective) conditions when the hill was present. Pre-multiplied spectra of the rotor angular velocity and two-point correlation contours of the streamwise velocity component confirmed a non-trivial link between thermal stratification and terrain complexity. It is inferred that the thermal effects occurring in the three different boundary-layer regimes modulate the spanwise motion of the hill wake and define whether the hill shelters or exposes the turbine to enhanced large-scale energetic motions.

Keywords

Boundary layer Complex terrain Thermal stability Turbulence  Particle image velocimetry 

References

  1. Adrian RJ, Meinhart CD, Tomkins CD (2000) Vortex organization in the outer region of the turbulent boundary-layer. J Fluid Mech 422:1–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrian RJ, Christensen KT, Liu ZC (2000) Analysis and interpretation of instantaneous turbulent velocity fields. Exp Fluids 29:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AWEA 1st quarter 2012 Public Market Report (2012) American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), pp 1–21Google Scholar
  4. Ayotte KW, Hughes DE (2004) Observations of boundary-layer wind-tunnel flow over isolated ridges of varying steepness and roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112:525–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balakumar B, Adrian R (2007) Large scale and very large-scale motions in turbulent boundary-layers and channel flows. Phil Trans R Soc A 365:665–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buck JW, Renne DS (1985) Observations of wake characteristics at the Goodnoe Hills MOD-2 array. National Technical Information Service, AlexandriaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cal RB, Lebron J, Castillo L, Kang HS, Meneveau C (2010) Experimental study of the horizontally averaged flow structure in a model wind-turbine array boundary layer. J Renew Sust Energy 2:013106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calaf M, Meneveau C, Parlange M (2011) Large eddy simulation study of a fully developed thermal wind-turbine array boundary-layer. Ercoftac SER 15:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carper MA, Porté-Agel F (2004) The role of coherent structures in subfilter-scale dissipation of turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer. J Turbul 5:N40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castro IP, Snyder WH (1982) A wind-tunnel study of dispersion from sources downwind of three-dimensional hills. Atmos Environ 16–8:1869–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chamorro LP, Porté-Agel F (2010) Effects of thermal stability and incoming boundary-layer flow characteristics on wind-turbine wakes: a wind-tunnel study. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. doi:10.1007/s10546-010-9512-1
  12. Chamorro LP, Porté-Agel F (2009) A wind-tunnel investigation of wind-tubine wakes: boundary-layer turbulence effects. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 132:129–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chamorro LP, Arndt R, Sotiropoulos F (2011) Turbulent flow properties around a perfectly staggered wind-farm. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 141:349–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chamorro LP, Porté-Agel F (2011) Turbulent flow inside and above a wind-farm: a wind-tunnel study. Energies 4:1916–1936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chamorro LP, Guala M, Arndt R, Sotiropoulos F (2012) On the evolution of turbulent scales in the wake of a wind-turbine model. J Turbul 13:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chamorro LP, Hill C, Morton S, Ellis C, Arndt REA, Sotiropoulos F (2012) On the interaction between a turbulent open channel flow and an axial-flow turbine. J Fluid Mech. doi:10.1017/jfm.2012.571
  17. Chauhan K, Hutchins N, Monty J, Marusic I (2013) Structure inclination angles in the convective atmospheric surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 147:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng Y, Parlange MB, Brutsaert W (2005) Pathology of Monin–Obukhov similarity in the stable boundary-layer. J Geophys Res-Atmos 110:2156–2202Google Scholar
  19. Corten GP, Schaak P, Hegberg T (2004) Velocity profiles measured above a scaled wind-farm. Eur. Wind Conference, Nov 2004, London, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  20. Fedorovich E, Kaiser P, Rau M, Plate E (1996) wind-tunnel study of turbulent flow structure in the convective boundary-layer capped by a temperature inversion. J Atmos Sci 53(9):1273–1289. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Finnigan JJ, Raupach MR, Bradley EF, Aldis GK (1990) A wind-tunnel study of turbulent flow over a two-dimensional ridge. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 50:277–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frandsen S (1992) On the wind-speed reduction in the center of large clusters of wind-turbines. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 39:251–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gravdahl AR, Rorgemoen S, Thogersen M (2002) Power prediction and siting-when the terrain gets rough. In: The World Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition. pp 1–4Google Scholar
  24. Gonzáles-Longatt F, Wall P, Terzija V (2012) Wake effect in wind-farm performance: steady-state and dynamic behavior. Renew Energy 39:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guala M, Hommema SE, Adrian RJ (2006) Large-scale and very-large-scale motions in turbulent pipe flow. J Fluid Mech 554:521–542. doi:10.1017/S0022112010004544 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guala M, Metzger M, McKeon BJ (2011) Interactions within the turbulent boundary-layer at high Reynolds number. J Fluid Mech 666:573–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guala M, Tomkins CD, Christensen KT, Adrian RJ (2012) Vortex organization in a turbulent boundary layer overlying sparse roughness elements. J Hydraul Res 50(5):465–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hancock PE, Pasheke F (2014) Wind-tunnel simulation of the wake of a large wind turbine in a stable boundary layer. Part 1: The boundary-layer simulation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 151:3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hancock PE, Pascheke F (2014) wind-tunnel simulation of the wake-flow of a large wind-turbine in a stable boundary layer: part 2, the wake-flow. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 151:23–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harman IN, Finnigan JJ (2013) Flow over a narrow ridge covered with a plant canopy: a comparison between wind-tunnel observations and linear theory. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 147:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Howard KB, Chamorro LP, Guala M (2013) An experimental case study of complex topographic and atmospheric influences on wind-turbine performance, AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, DallasGoogle Scholar
  32. Howard KB, Hu JS, Chamorro LP, Guala M (2015) Characterizing the response of a wind-turbine model under complex inflow conditions. Wind Energy 18(4):729–743. doi:10.1002/we.1724 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hu H, Yang Z, Sarkar P (2012) Dynamic wind loads and wake characteristics of a wind-turbine model in an atmospheric boundary-layer wind. Exp Fluids 52:1277–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hong J, Toloui M, Chamorro LP, Guala M, Howard K, Riley S, Tucker J, Sotiropoulos F. (2014) Natural snowfall reveals large-scale flow structures in the wake of a 2.5-MW wind-turbine. Nature COMM 5Google Scholar
  35. Husien W, El-Osta W, Dekam E (2013) Effect of the wake behind wind rotor on optimum energy output of wind-farms. Renew Energy 49:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hutchins N, Marusic I (2007) Evidence of very long meandering features in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary-layers. J Fluid Mech 579:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ivanova LA, Nadyozhina ED (2000) Numerical simulation of wind-farm influence on wind flow. Wind Energy 24:257–269Google Scholar
  38. Kanda I, Yamao Y, Uehara K, Wakamatsu S (2013) Particle-image velocimetry measurements of separation and re-attachment of airflow over two-dimensional hills with various slope angles and approach-flow characteristics. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. doi:10.1007/s10546-013-9806-1
  39. von Kármán T (1911) Nachr. Ges. Wissenschaft. Göttingen pp. 509-517Google Scholar
  40. Lebron J, Castillo L, Meneveau C (2012) Experimental study of the kinetic energy budget in a wind-turbine streamtube. J Turbul. doi:10.1080/14685248.2012.705005
  41. Marusic I, Heuer WDC (2007) Reynolds number invariance of the structure inclination angle in wall turbulence. Phys Rev Lett 99:114504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Markfort CD, Zhang W, Porté-Agel F (2012) Turbulent flow and scalar transport through and over aligned and staggered wind-farms. J Turbul 13(1):N33. doi:10.1080/14685248.2012.709635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Melling A (1997) Tracer particles and seeding for particle image velocimetry. Meas Sci Technol 8:1406–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Meneveau C (2012) The top-down model of wind-farm boundary-layers and its applications. J Turbul 13:N7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Neff DE, Meroney RN (1997) Wind-tunnel modeling of hill and vegetation influence on wind-power availability. In: Proceedings from 2nd European and African conference on wind engineering, June 1997Google Scholar
  46. Ohya Y, Neff DE, Meroney RN (1997) Turbulence structure in a stratified boundary-layer under stable conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 83(1):139–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (1986), Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United StatesGoogle Scholar
  48. Politis ES, Prospathopoulos J, Cabezón D, Hansen KS, Chaviaropoulos PK, Barthelmie RJ (2012) Wake effects in large wind-farms in complex terrain: the problem, the methods and the issues. Wind Energy 15(1):161–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Porté-Agel F, Wu YT, Lu H, Conzemius RJ (2011) Large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary-layer flow through wind-turbines and wind-farms. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 99:154–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singh A, Howard KB, Guala M (2014) On the homogenization of turbulent flow structures in the wake of a model wind-turbine. Phys Fluids 26:025103. doi:10.1063/1.4863983 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smits AJ, McKeon BJ, Marusic I (2011) High-Reynolds number wall turbulence. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 43:353–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Snyder WH, Britter RE (1987) A wind-tunnel study of the flow structure and dispersion from sources upwind of three-dimensional hills. Atmos Environ 21–4:735–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sørensen JN (2011) Aerodynamic aspects of wind energy conversion. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 43:427–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stull RB (1988) An introduction to boundary-layer meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 670 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Takahashi T, Kato S, Murakami S, Ooka R, Yassin MF, Kono R (2005) wind-tunnel tests of effects of atmospheric stability on turbulent flow over a three-dimensional hill. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 93: 155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tampieri F, Mammarella I, Maurizi A (2003) Turbulence in complex terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 109: 85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Toloui M, Riley S, Hong J, Howard K, Chamorro LP, Guala M, Tucker J (2014) Measurement of atmospheric boundary-layer based on super-large-scale particle image velocimetry using natural snowfall. Exp Fluids 55(5):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Troldborg N, Larsen GC, Madsen HA, Hansen KS, Sørensen JN, Mikkelsen R (2011) Numerical simulations of wake interaction between two wind-turbines at various inflow conditions. Wind Energy 7(14):859–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vermeer LJ, Sørensen JN, Crespo A (2003) Wind turbine wake aerodynamics. Prog Aerosp Sci 39:467–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang Z, Oxbay A, Sarkar P, Hu H (2012) An experimental investigation on the wake interference of wind-turbines sited over complex terrains. AIAA ASM Nashville, Jan 2012Google Scholar
  61. Yang X, Kang S, Sotiropoulos F (2012) Computational study and modeling of turbine spacing effects in infinite aligned wind-farms. Phys Fluids 24:115107. doi:10.1063/1.4767727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yang X, Howard KB, Guala M and Sotiropoulos (2015) Effects of a three dimensional hillon the wake characteristics of a model wind-turbine. Phys Fluids 27(2):025103Google Scholar
  63. Wu Y, Christensen KT (2010) Spatial structure of a turbulent boundary-layer with irregular surface roughness. J Fluid Mech 655:380–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wu YT, Porte-Agel F (2013) Simulation of turbulent flow inside and above wind farms: model validation and layout effects. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 146(2):181–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zahle F, Sørensen NN (2011) Characterization of the unsteady flow in the nacelle region of a modern wind-turbine. Wind Energy 14:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhang W, Markfort CD, Porté-Agel F (2013) Wind turbine wakes in a convective boundary-layer: a wind-tunnel study. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 146:161–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Science and EngineeringUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations