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Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 150, Issue 2, pp 235–258 | Cite as

Influence from Surrounding Land on the Turbulence Measurements Above a Lake

  • Erik SahléeEmail author
  • Anna Rutgersson
  • Eva Podgrajsek
  • Hans Bergström
Article

Abstract

Turbulence measurements taken at a Swedish lake are analyzed. Although the measurements took place over a relatively large lake with several km of undisturbed fetch, the turbulence structure was found to be highly influenced by the surrounding land during daytime. Variance spectra of both horizontal velocity and scalars during both unstable and stable stratification displayed a low frequency peak. The energy at lower frequencies showed a daily variation, increasing in the morning and decreasing in the afternoon. This behaviour is explained by spectral lag, where the low frequency energy due to large eddies that originate from the convective boundary layer above the surrounding land. When the air is advected over the lake the small eddies rapidly equilibrate with the new surface forcing. However, the large eddies remain for an appreciable distance and influence the turbulence in the developing lake boundary layer. The variances of the horizontal velocity and scalars are increased by these large eddies, while the turbulent fluxes are mainly unaffected. The drag coefficient, Stanton number and Dalton number used to parametrize the momentum flux, heat flux and latent heat flux respectively all compare well with current parametrizations developed for open sea conditions. The diurnal cycle of the partial pressure of methane, \(p\mathrm{CH}_{4}\), observed at this site is closely related to the diurnal cycle of the lake-air methane flux. An idealized two-dimensional model simulation of the boundary layer at a lake site indicates that the strong response of \(p\mathrm{CH}_{4}\) to the surface methane flux is due to the shallow internal boundary layer that develops above the lake, allowing methane to accumulate in a relatively small volume.

Keywords

Air–lake interaction Methane flux measurements Methane open-path sensor performance Spectral lag 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was sponsored by the Swedish Research Council FORMAS.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik Sahlée
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anna Rutgersson
    • 1
  • Eva Podgrajsek
    • 1
  • Hans Bergström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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