Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 150, Issue 2, pp 235–258 | Cite as

Influence from Surrounding Land on the Turbulence Measurements Above a Lake

  • Erik SahléeEmail author
  • Anna Rutgersson
  • Eva Podgrajsek
  • Hans Bergström


Turbulence measurements taken at a Swedish lake are analyzed. Although the measurements took place over a relatively large lake with several km of undisturbed fetch, the turbulence structure was found to be highly influenced by the surrounding land during daytime. Variance spectra of both horizontal velocity and scalars during both unstable and stable stratification displayed a low frequency peak. The energy at lower frequencies showed a daily variation, increasing in the morning and decreasing in the afternoon. This behaviour is explained by spectral lag, where the low frequency energy due to large eddies that originate from the convective boundary layer above the surrounding land. When the air is advected over the lake the small eddies rapidly equilibrate with the new surface forcing. However, the large eddies remain for an appreciable distance and influence the turbulence in the developing lake boundary layer. The variances of the horizontal velocity and scalars are increased by these large eddies, while the turbulent fluxes are mainly unaffected. The drag coefficient, Stanton number and Dalton number used to parametrize the momentum flux, heat flux and latent heat flux respectively all compare well with current parametrizations developed for open sea conditions. The diurnal cycle of the partial pressure of methane, \(p\mathrm{CH}_{4}\), observed at this site is closely related to the diurnal cycle of the lake-air methane flux. An idealized two-dimensional model simulation of the boundary layer at a lake site indicates that the strong response of \(p\mathrm{CH}_{4}\) to the surface methane flux is due to the shallow internal boundary layer that develops above the lake, allowing methane to accumulate in a relatively small volume.


Air–lake interaction Methane flux measurements Methane open-path sensor performance Spectral lag 



The work was sponsored by the Swedish Research Council FORMAS.


  1. Andreas EL (1987) Spectral measurements in a disturbed boundary layer over snow. J Atmos Sci 44:1912–1939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrén A (1990) Evaluation of a turbulence closure scheme suitable for air pollution applications. J Appl Meteorol 29:224–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreas EL, DeCosmo J (2002) The signature of sea spray in the HEXOS turbulent heat flux data. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 103:303–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bastviken D, Cole JJ, Pace M, Van de Bogert MC (2008) Fates of methane from different lake habitats: connecting whole-lake budgets and CH\(_{4}\) emissions. J Geophys Res 113:G02024. doi:  10.1029/2007JG000608 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bastviken D, Tranvik LJ, Downing JA, Crill PM, Enrich-Prast A (2011) Freshwater emissions offset the continental carbon sink. Science 331. doi: 10.1126/science.1196808
  6. Cole JJ, Praire YT, Caraco NF, McDowell WH, Tranvik LJ, Striegl RG, Duarte CM, Kortelainen P, Downing JA, Middelburg JJ, Melack J (2007) Plumbing the global carbon cycle: integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems 19:171–184Google Scholar
  7. Dengel S, Levy PE, Grace J, Jones SK, Skiba UM (2011) Methane emissions form sheep pasture, measured with an open-path eddy covariance system. Global Change Biol 17:3524–3533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Detto M, Verfaille J, Anderson F, Xu L, Baldocchi D (2011) Comparing laser-based open- and closed-path gas analyzers to measure methane fluxes using the eddy covariance method. Agric For Meteorol 151:1312–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Enger L (1990) Simulation of dispersion in a moderately complex terrain. Part A. The fluid dynamic model. Atmos Environ 24A:2431–2446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fairall CW, Hare JE, Grachev AA, Edson JB (2003) Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes: updates and verification for the COARE algorithm. J Clim 16:571–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garratt JR (1992) The atmospheric boundary layer. Cambridge University Press, U.K., 316 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Holthuijsen LH (2007) Waves in oceanic and coastal waters. Cambridge University Press, UK, 387 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Hunt JCR, Durbin PA (1999) Perturbed vertical layers and shear sheltering. Fluid Dyn Res 24:375–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Högström U (1990) Analysis of turbulence structure in the surface layer with a modified similarity formulation for near neutral conditions. J Atmos Sci 47:1949–1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Högström U, Bergström H, Alexandersson A (1982) Turbulence characteristics in a near neutrally stratified urban atmosphere. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 23:449–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Högström U, Smedman A, Sahlée E, Drennan WM, Kahma KK, Zhang FW (2009) The atmospheric boundary layer during sell—a field study and interpretation of the turbulent kinetic energy budget for high wave ages. J Atmos Sci 66:2764–2779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Högström U, Rutgersson A, Sahlée E, Smedman A, Hristov TS, Drennan WM, Kahma KK (2012) Air–sea interaction features in the Baltic Sea and at a Pacific trade-wind site: an inter-comparison study. Boundary-Layer Meteorol, in press. doi: 10.1007/s10546-012-9776-8
  18. Kaimal JC, Wyngaard JC, Izumi Y, Coté OR (1972) Spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence. Q J R Meteorol Soc 98:563–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Katul G, Kuhn G, Schieldge J, Hsieh C-I (1997) The ejection-sweep character of scalar fluxes in the unstable surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 83:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krinner G (2003) Impact of lakes and wetlands on boreal climate. J Geophys Res 108:4520. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002597 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kljun NP, Calanca MW, Rotach MW, Schmid HP (2004) A simple parameterization for flux footprint predictions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112:503–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Large WG, Pond S (1982) Sensible and latent heat flux measurements over the ocean. J Phys Oceangr 12:464–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Larsén XG, Smedman A, Högström U (2004) Air–sea exchange of sensible heat over the Baltic Sea. Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:519–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li D, Bou-Zeid E (2011) Coherent structures and the dissimilarity of turbulent transport of momentum and scalars in the unstable atmospheric surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 140:243–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li W, Hiyama T, Kobayashi N (2007) Turbulence spectra in the near-neutral surface layer over the Loess Plateau in China. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 124:449–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McDermitt D, Burba G, Xu L, Anderson T, Komissarov A, Riensche B, Schedlbauer J, Starr G, Zona D, Oechel W, Oberbayer S, Hastings S (2011) A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance. Appl Phys B 102:391–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McNaughton KG, Laubach J (2000) Power spectra and cospectra for wind and scalars in a disturbed surface layer at the base of an advective inversion. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 96:143–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Panofsky HA, Larko D, Lipschutz R, Stone G, Bradley EF, Bowen AJ, Højstrup J (1982) Spectra of velocity components over complex terrain. Q J R Meteorol Soc 108:215–230Google Scholar
  29. Panofsky HA, Tenneks H, Lenshow DH, Wyngaard JC (1977) The characteristics of turbulent velocity components in the surface layer under convective conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 11:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peltola O, Mammarella I, Haapanala S, Burba G, Vesala T (2012) Field intercomparison of four methane gas analuzers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements. Biogeosci Discuss 9:17651–17706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Podgrajsek E, Sahlée E, Rutgersson A (2013) Diurnal cycle of lake methane flux. J Geophys Res (in revision)Google Scholar
  32. Rutgersson A, Smedman A, Omstedt A (2001) Measured and simulated latent and sensible heat fluxes at two marine sites in the Baltic Sea. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 99:53–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rutgersson A, Smedman A, Sahlée E (2011) Oceanic convective mixing and the impact on air–sea gas transfer velocity. Geophys Res Lett 38:L02602. doi: 10.1029/2010GL045581 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saiki EM, Moeng C-H, Sullivan P (2000) Large-eddy simulation of the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 95:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sahlée E, Smedman A, Högström U (2008a) Influence of a new turbulence regime on the global air–sea heat fluxes. J Clim 21:5925–5941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sahlée E, Smedman A, Rutgersson A, Högström U (2008b) Spectra of CO\(_{2}\) and humidity in the marine atmospheric surface layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 126:279–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sahlée E, Smedman A, Högström U, Rutgersson A (2008c) Re-evaluation of the bulk exchange coefficient for humidity at sea during unstable and neutral conditions. J Phys Oceangr 38:257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sahlée E, Drennan WM, Potter H, Rebozo MA (2012) Waves and air–sea fluxes from a drifting ASIS buoy during the Southern ocean gas exchange experiment. J Geophys Res 117:C08003. doi: 10.1029/2012JC008032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Samuelsson P, Kourzeneva E, Mironov D (2010) The impact of lakes on the European climate as simulated by a regional climate model. Boreal Environ Res 15:113–129Google Scholar
  40. Smedman A, Högström U, Hunt JCR (2004) Effects of shear sheltering in a stable atmospheric boundary layer with strong shear. Q J R Meteorol Soc 126:31–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smedman A, Högström U, Hunt JCR, Sahlée E (2007a) Heat/mass transfer in the slightly unstable atmospheric surface layer. Q J R Meteorol Soc 133:37–51Google Scholar
  42. Smedman A, Högström U, Sahlée E, Johansson C (2007b) Critical re-evluation of the bulk transfer coefficient for sensible heat over the ocean during unstable and neutral conditions. Q J R Meteorol Soc 133:227–250Google Scholar
  43. Smedman A, Högström U, Sahlée E, Drennan WM, Kahma KK, Zhang FW (2009) Observational study of the marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics during swell. J Atmos Sci 66:2747–2763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Smeets CJPP, Duynkerke PG, Vugts HF (2000) Turbulence characteristics of the stable boundary layer over amid-latitude glacier. Part II: pure katabatic forcing conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 97:73–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith SD (1988) Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature. J Geophys Res 93:15467–15472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smith SD, Fairall CW, Geernaert GL, Hasse L (1996) Air–sea fluxes: 25 years of progress. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 78:247–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sullivan PP, Hristov T, McWilliams JC (2008) Large-eddy simulations and observations of atmospheric marine boundary layers above nonequilibrium surface waves. J Atmos Sci 65:1225–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sun J, Desjardins R, Mahrt L, MacPherson I (1998) Transport of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone by turbulence and local circulations. J Geophys Res 103:25873–25885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walter RK, Nidzieko NJ, Monismith SG (2011) Similarity scaling of turbulence spectra and cospectra in a shallow tidal flow. J Geophys Res 116:C10019. doi: 10.1029/2011JC007144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wanninkhof R, We Asher (2009) Advances in quantifying air–sea gas exchange and environmental forcing. Annu Rev Mar Sci 1:213–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Webb EK, Pearman GI, Leuning R (1980) Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer. Q J R Meteorol Soc 106:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang Y, Liu H, Foken T, Williams QL, Liu S, Mauder M, Liebthal C (2010) Turbulence spectra and cospectra under the influence of large eddies in the energy balance experiment (EBEX). Boundary-Layer Meteorol 136:235–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik Sahlée
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anna Rutgersson
    • 1
  • Eva Podgrajsek
    • 1
  • Hans Bergström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations