Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 147, Issue 3, pp 469–491 | Cite as

The Wind Profile in the Coastal Boundary Layer: Wind Lidar Measurements and Numerical Modelling

  • R. FloorsEmail author
  • C. L. Vincent
  • S. -E. Gryning
  • A. Peña
  • E. Batchvarova


Traditionally it has been difficult to verify mesoscale model wind predictions against observations in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here we used measurements from a wind lidar to study the PBL up to 800 m above the surface at a flat coastal site in Denmark during a one month period in autumn. We ran the Weather Research and Forecasting numerical model with two different roughness descriptions over land, two different synoptic forcings and two different PBL schemes at two vertical resolutions and evaluated the wind profile against observations from the wind lidar. The simulated wind profile did not have enough vertical shear in the lower part of the PBL and also had a negative bias higher up in the boundary layer. Near the surface the internal boundary layer and the surface roughness influenced the wind speed, while higher up it was only influenced by the choice of PBL scheme and the synoptic forcing. By replacing the roughness value for the land-use category in the model with a more representative mesoscale roughness, the observed bias in friction velocity was reduced. A higher-order PBL scheme simulated the wind profile from the west with a lower wind-speed bias at the top of the PBL. For easterly winds low-level jets contributed to a negative wind-speed bias around 300 m and were better simulated by the first-order scheme. In all simulations, the wind-profile shape, wind speed and turbulent fluxes were not improved when a higher vertical resolution or different synoptic forcing were used.


Internal boundary layer Low-level jet Weather Research and Forecasting model Wind lidar Wind profile 



We would like to thank Andrea Hahmann and Joakim Nielsen for their input in the discussions about the WRF model and three reviewers for their constructive comments. The study is supported by the Danish Research Agency Strategic Research Council (Sagsnr. 2104-08-0025) “Tall wind” project, the Nordic Centre of Excellence programme CRAICC and the EU FP7-People-IEF VSABLA (PIEF-GA-2009-237471). The contribution of C.L. Vincent was supported by the Danish Council for Independent Research—Technology and Production Sciences individual post-doc project (case number 10-093196). TEM section at DTU Wind Energy is acknowledged for maintenance of the data base for all measurements at the Høvsøre site.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Floors
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. L. Vincent
    • 1
  • S. -E. Gryning
    • 1
  • A. Peña
    • 1
  • E. Batchvarova
    • 2
  1. 1.DTU Wind Energy, Risø CampusTechnical University of DenmarkRoskildeDenmark
  2. 2.National Institute of Meteorology and HydrologySofiaBulgaria

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