Advertisement

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 141, Issue 3, pp 443–465 | Cite as

Estimating Aerodynamic Parameters of Urban-Like Surfaces with Heterogeneous Building Heights

  • J. T. Millward-Hopkins
  • A. S. TomlinEmail author
  • L. Ma
  • D. Ingham
  • M. Pourkashanian
Article

Abstract

There are many geometrical factors than can influence the aerodynamic parameters of urban surfaces and hence the vertical wind profiles found above. The knowledge of these parameters has applications in numerous fields, such as dispersion modelling, wind loading calculations, and estimating the wind energy resource at urban locations. Using quasi-empirical modelling, we estimate the dependence of the aerodynamic roughness length and zero-plane displacement for idealized urban surfaces, on the two most significant geometrical characteristics; surface area density and building height variability. A validation of the spatially-averaged, logarithmic wind profiles predicted by the model is carried out, via comparisons with available wind-tunnel and numerical data for arrays of square based blocks of uniform and heterogeneous heights. The model predicts two important properties of the aerodynamic parameters of surfaces of heterogeneous heights that have been suggested by experiments. Firstly, the zero-plane displacement of a heterogeneous array can exceed the surface mean building height significantly. Secondly, the characteristic peak in roughness length with respect to surface area density becomes much softer for heterogeneous arrays compared to uniform arrays, since a variation in building height can prevent a skimming flow regime from occurring. Overall the simple model performs well against available experimental data and may offer more accurate estimates of surface aerodynamic parameters for complex urban surfaces compared to models that do not include height variability.

Keywords

Aerodynamic roughness length Displacement height Heterogeneous array Surface roughness Urban surfaces Vertical wind profiles Zero-plane displacement 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bottema M (1996) Roughness parameters over regular rough surfaces: experimental requirements and model validation. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 64: 249–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bottema M (1997) Urban roughness modelling in relation to pollutant dispersion. Atmos Environ 31: 3059–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Britter RE, Hanna SR (2003) Flow and dispersion in urban areas. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 35: 469–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castro IP, Robins AG (1977) Flow around a surface-mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams. J Fluid Mech 79: 307–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng H, Castro IP (2002) Near wall flow over urban-like roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104: 229–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheng H, Hayden P, Robins AG, Castro IP (2007) Flow over cube arrays of different packing densities. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 95: 715–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coceal O, Belcher SE (2004) A canopy model of mean winds through urban areas. Q J Roy Meteorol Soc 130: 1349–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davidson PA (2004) Turbulence: an introduction for scientists and engineers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, p 655Google Scholar
  9. Di Sabatino S, Solazzo E, Paradisi P, Britter R (2008) A simple model for spatially-averaged wind profiles within and above an urban canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127: 131–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dobre A., Arnold SJ, Smalley RJ, Boddy JWD, Barlow JF, Tomlin AS, Belcher SE (2005) Flow field measurements in the proximity of an urban intersection in London, UK. Atmos Environ 39: 4647–4657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ESDU (1980) Mean fluid forces and moments on rectangular prisms: surface-mounted structures in turbulent shear flow. Engineering Sciences Data Unit Item Number 80003Google Scholar
  12. Fackrell JE (1984) Parameters characterising dispersion in the near wake of buildings. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 16: 97–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garratt JR (1980) Surface influence upon vertical profiles in the atmospheric near-surface layer. Q J Roy Meteorol Soc 106: 803–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grimmond CSB, Oke TR (1999) Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived, from analysis of surface form. J Appl Meteorol 38: 1262–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hagishima A, Tanimoto J, Nagayama K, Meno S (2009) Aerodynamic parameters of regular arrays of rectangular blocks with various geometries. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 132: 315–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hall D, Macdonald JR, Walker S, Spanton AM (1996) Measurements of dispersion within simulated urban arrays—a small scale wind tunnel study, BRE Client Report, CR178/96Google Scholar
  17. Harman I, Finnigan J (2007) A simple unified theory for flow in the canopy and roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 123: 339–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang S, Li QS, Xu S (2007) Numerical evaluation of wind effects on a tall steel building by CFD. J Constr Steel Res 63: 612–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hunt JCR, Abell CJ, Peterka JA, Woo H (1978) Kinematical studies of the flows around free or surface-mounted obstacles; applying topology to flow visualization. J Fluid Mech 86: 179–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hussain M, Lee BE (1980) A wind-tunnel study of the mean pressure forces acting on large groups of low-rise buildings. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 6: 207–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jackson PS (1981) On the Displacement Height in the Logarithmic Velocity Profile. J Fluid Mech 111(Oct): 15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jia YQ, Sill BL, Reinhold TA (1998) Effects of surface roughness element spacing on boundary-layer velocity profile parameters. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 73: 215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jiang DH, Jiang WM, Liu HN, Sun JN (2008) Systematic influence of different building spacing, height and layout on mean wind and turbulent characteristics within and over urban building arrays. Wind Struct 11: 275–289Google Scholar
  24. Kanda M (2006) Large-eddy simulations on the effects of surface geometry of building arrays on turbulent organized structures. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 118: 151–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kastner-Klein P, Rotach MW (2004) Mean flow and turbulence characteristics in an urban roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 111: 55–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leonardi S, Castro IP (2010) Channel flow over large cube roughness: a direct numerical simulation study. J Fluid Mech 651: 519–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MacDonald RW (2000) Modelling the mean velocity profile in the urban canopy layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 97: 25–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. MacDonald RW, Griffiths RF, Hall DJ (1998) An improved method for the estimation of surface roughness of obstacle arrays. Atmos Environ 32: 1857–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Millward-Hopkins JT, Tomlin AS, Ma L, Ingham D, Pourkashanian M (2011) The predictability of the above roof wind resource in the urban roughness sublayer. Wind Energy. doi: 10.1002/we.463
  30. Oke TR (1988) Street Design and Urban Canopy Layer Climate. Energy Build 11: 103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peterka JA, Meroney RN, Kothari KM (1985) Wind flow patterns about buildings. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 21: 21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rafailidas S (1997) Influence of building areal density and roof shape on the wind characteristics above a town. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 85: 255–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ratti C, Di Sabatino S, Britter R, Brown M, Caton F, Burian S (2002) Analysis of 3-D urban databases with respect to pollution dispersion for a number of European and American cities. Water Soil Air Pollut Focus 2: 459–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Raupach MR (1992) Drag and drag partition on rough surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 60: 375–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raupach MR (1994) Simplified expressions for vegetation roughness length and zero-plane displacement as functions of canopy height and area index. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 71: 211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Raupach MR (1995) Corrigenda. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 76: 303–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Raupach MR, Thom AS, Edwards I (1980) A wind tunnel study of turbulent-flow close to regularly arrayed rough surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 18: 373–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Raupach MR, Antonia RA, Rajagopalan S (1991) Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. Appl Mech Rev 44: 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rodi W (1997) Comparison of LES and RANS calculations of the flow around bluff bodies. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 71: 55–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rooney GG (2001) Comparison of upwind land use and roughness length measured in the urban boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 100: 469–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shao Y, Yang Y (2005) A scheme for drag partition over rough surfaces. Atmos Environ 39: 7351–7361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Song CCS, He J (1993) Computation of wind flow around a tall building and the large-scale vortex structure. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 46(47): 219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tominag Y, Mochida A, Murakami S, Sawaki S (2008) Comparison of various revised k–e models and LES applied to flow around a high-rise building model with 1:1:2 shape placed within the surface boundary layer. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 96: 389–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xie ZT, Coceal O, Castro IP (2008) Large-eddy simulation of flows over random urban-like obstacles. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 129: 1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zaki S, Hagishima A, Tanimoto J, Ikegaya N (2011) Aerodynamic parameters of urban building arrays with random geometries. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 138: 99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang YQ, Huber AH, Arya SPS, Snyder WH (1993) Numerical simulation to determine the effects of incident wind shear and turbulence level on the flow around a building. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 46(47): 129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. T. Millward-Hopkins
    • 1
  • A. S. Tomlin
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Ma
    • 1
  • D. Ingham
    • 1
  • M. Pourkashanian
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Process, Environmental and Materials EngineeringUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations