Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 139, Issue 1, pp 121–141 | Cite as

The Simulation of the Opposing Fluxes of Latent Heat and CO2 over Various Land-Use Types: Coupling a Gas Exchange Model to a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model

  • Mark Reyers
  • Andreas Krüger
  • Christiane Werner
  • Joaquim G. Pinto
  • Stefan Zacharias
  • Michael Kerschgens
Open Access
Article

Abstract

A mesoscale meteorological model (FOOT3DK) is coupled with a gas exchange model to simulate surface fluxes of CO2 and H2O under field conditions. The gas exchange model consists of a C3 single leaf photosynthesis sub-model and an extended big leaf (sun/shade) sub-model that divides the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions. Simulated CO2 fluxes of the stand-alone version of the gas exchange model correspond well to eddy-covariance measurements at a test site in a rural area in the west of Germany. The coupled FOOT3DK/gas exchange model is validated for the diurnal cycle at singular grid points, and delivers realistic fluxes with respect to their order of magnitude and to the general daily course. Compared to the Jarvis-based big leaf scheme, simulations of latent heat fluxes with a photosynthesis-based scheme for stomatal conductance are more realistic. As expected, flux averages are strongly influenced by the underlying land cover. While the simulated net ecosystem exchange is highly correlated with leaf area index, this correlation is much weaker for the latent heat flux. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is associated with transpirational water loss via the stomata, and the resulting opposing surface fluxes of CO2 and H2O are reproduced with the model approach. Over vegetated surfaces it is shown that the coupling of a photosynthesis-based gas exchange model with the land-surface scheme of a mesoscale model results in more realistic simulated latent heat fluxes.

Keywords

C3 single leaf photosynthesis Latent heat flux Net ecosystem exchange Stomatal conductance Sun/shade model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Transregional Collaborative Centre 32 “Pattern in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Systems: Monitoring, Modelling, and Data Assimilation” (Transregio/SFB32), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Thanks for providing observations go to TR32 participants Alexander Graf and Anke Schickling, and to Marius Schmidt of the University of Cologne. We gratefully acknowledge GuidoWaldhoff of the TR32 project “Database and Data Management” for preparing the land-use classification. The authors thank three anonymous reviewers for their detailed comments and suggestions.

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution,and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Reyers
    • 1
  • Andreas Krüger
    • 1
  • Christiane Werner
    • 2
  • Joaquim G. Pinto
    • 1
  • Stefan Zacharias
    • 1
  • Michael Kerschgens
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Geophysics and MeteorologyUniversity of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Experimental and Systems EcologyUniversity of BielefeldBielefeldGermany

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