Advertisement

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 126, Issue 2, pp 209–218 | Cite as

Consequences of Uncertainties in CO2 Density for Estimating Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange by Open-path Eddy Covariance

  • Penélope Serrano-Ortiz
  • Andrew S. Kowalski
  • Francisco Domingo
  • Borja Ruiz
  • Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Original Paper

Abstract

Errors in the estimation of CO2 surface exchange by open-path eddy covariance, introduced during the removal of density terms [Webb et al. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 106:85–100, (1980) - WPL], can happen both because of errors in energy fluxes [Liu et al. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 120:65–85, (2006)] but also because of inaccuracies in other terms included in the density corrections, most notably due to measurements of absolute CO2 density (ρ c ). Equations are derived to examine the propagation of all errors through the WPL algorithm. For an open-path eddy covariance system operating in the Sierra de Gádor in south-east Spain, examples are presented of the inability of an unattended, open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to reliably report ρ c and the need for additional instrumentation to determine calibration corrections. A sensitivity analysis shows that relatively large and systematic errors in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) can result from uncertainties in ρ c in a semi-arid climate with large sensible heat fluxes (H s ) and (wet) mineral deposition. When ρc is underestimated by 5% due to lens contamination, this implies a 13% overestimation of monthly CO2 uptake.

Keywords

Density correction Eddy covariance Error propagation Open-path infrared gas analyzer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bergeron O, Margolis HA, Black TA, Coursolle C, Dunn AL, Barr AG and Wofsy SC (2007). Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three boreal black spruce forests in Canada. Global Change Biol 13: 89–107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Collaud Coen M, Weingartner E, Schaub D, Hueglin C, Corrigan C, Henning S, Schwikowski M and Baltensperger U (2004). Saharan dust events at the Jungfraujoch: detection by wavelength dependence of the single scattering albedo and first climatology analysis. Atmos Chem Phys 4: 2465–2480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. (1899). Rains of sand, dust and mud. Mon Wea Rev 17: 158 Google Scholar
  4. Falge E, Baldocchi DD, Olson R, Anthoni PM, Aubinet M, Bernhofer C, Burba G, Ceulemans R, Clement R, Dolman AJ, Granier A, Gross P, Grünwald T, Hollinger D, Jensen NO, Katul GG, Keronen P, Kowalski AS, Lai CT, Law BE, Meyers TP, Moncrieff JB, Moors EJ, Munger JW, Pilegaard K, Rannik ü, Rebmann C, Suyker AE, Tenhunen JD, Tu K, Verma SB, Vesala T, Wilson KB and Wofsy SC (2001). Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange. Agric Forest Meteorol 107: 43–69 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Giasson MA, Coursolle C and Margolis HA (2006). Ecosystem-level CO2 fluxes from a boreal cutover in eastern Canada before and after scarification. Agric Forest Meteorol 140: 23–40 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Leuning R and Judd MJ (1996). The relative merits of open- and closed-path analysers for measurement of eddy fluxes. Global Change Biol 2: 241–253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Leuning R and Moncrieff JB (1990). Eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements using open-and closed-CO2 path analysers: corrections for analyser water vapour sensivity and dumping of fluctuations in air sampling tube. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 53: 63–76 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Leuning R, Cleugh HA, Zegelin SJ and Hughes D (2005). Carbon and water fluxes over a temperate Eucalyptus forest and a tropical wet/dry savanna in Australia: measurements and comparison with MODIS remote sensing estimates. Agric Forest Meteorol 129: 151–173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li-Cor I (2002) Section 2. Theory and operation. In: Li-Cor I (ed) Open path CO2/H2O analyzer. Instruction manual. LI-COR, Lincoln, NebraskaGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu H, Randerson JD, Lindfors J, Massman WJ and Foken T (2006). Consecuences of incomplete surface energy balance closure for CO2 fluxes from open-path CO2/H2O infrared gas analysers. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 120: 65–85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lyamani H, Olmo FJ, Alcántara A and Alados-Arboledas L (2006). Atmospheric aerosols during the 2003 heat wave in southeastern Spain II: microphysical columnar properties and radiative forcing. Atmos Environ 40: 6465–6476 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Miller SD, Goulden ML, Menton MC, Da Rocha HR, De Freitas HC, Michela A, Figueira S and De Sousa CA (2004). Biometric and micrometeorological measurements of tropical forest carbon balance. Ecol Appl 14: 114–126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moncrieff JB, Malhi Y and Leuning R (1996). The propagation of errors in long-term measurements of land atmosphere-fluxes of carbon and water. Global Change Biol 2: 231–240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Paw UKT, Baldocchi DD, Meyers TP and Wilson KB (2000). Correction of eddy-covariance measurements incorporating both advective effects and density fluxes. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 97: 487–511 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Penzar I, Poje D (1999–2000) Review of meteorological research in Croatia. Survey of situation up to 1997. Geofizika 16–17:1–32Google Scholar
  16. Queralt- Mitjans I, Domingo F and Sole-Benet A (1993). The Influence of local sources of the mineral content of bulk deposition over an altitudinal gradient in Filabres Range (SE Spain). J Geophys Res 98: 16761–16768 Google Scholar
  17. Serrano-Ortiz P, Kowalski AS, Domingo F, Rey A, Pegoraro E, Villagarcía L and Alados-Arboledas L (2007). Variations in daytime net carbon and water exchange in a montane shrubland ecosystem in southeast Spain. Photosynthetica 45: 30–35 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Webb EK, Pearman GI and Leuning R (1980). Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapor transfer. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 106: 85–100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Penélope Serrano-Ortiz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrew S. Kowalski
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francisco Domingo
    • 3
    • 4
  • Borja Ruiz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lucas Alados-Arboledas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Física AplicadaUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Centro Andaluz de Medio Ambiente (CEAMA)GranadaSpain
  3. 3.Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas, CSICAlmeríaSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Escuela Politécnica SuperiorUniversidad de AlmeríaAlmeríaSpain

Personalised recommendations