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Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 121, Issue 2, pp 339–350 | Cite as

Spatial Variability of Both Turbulent Fluxes and Temperature Profiles in an Urban Roughness Layer

  • M. KandaEmail author
  • R. Moriwaki
  • F. Kasamatsu
Article

Abstract

The spatial variability of both turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) and temperature profiles within and above the canopy layer (CL) were investigated experimentally in a densely built-up residential area in Tokyo, Japan. Using five towers with measuring devices, each tower isolated from the others by at least 200 m, we collected high-frequency measurements of velocity and temperature at a height z=1.8 z H, where z H, the mean building height in the area, is 7.3 m. Also, temperature profiles were measured from z=0.4 to 1.8 z H. The ‘areal mean’ geometric parameters that were obtained for the areas within 200 m of each tower were fairly homogeneous among the tower sites. The main results are as follows: (1) The spatial variability of all RSL turbulent statistics, except the sensible heat flux, was comparable to that reported in a pine forest. Also, the variability decreased with increasing friction velocity. (2) The spatial variability of the RSL sensible heat flux was larger than that reported in a pine forest. Also, the variability depended on the time of the day and became larger in the morning. The difference among the sites was well related to the areal fraction of vegetation. (3) The spatial variability of the CL temperature profile depended on the time of the day and became larger in the morning. Nevertheless, the spatial standard deviation of CL temperature was always below 0.7 K. (4) It is suggested that the “warming-up” process in the morning when heat storage is dominant increases the spatial variation of RSL sensible heat flux and CL temperature according to the local properties around each tower and the variation decreases once there is further convective mixing in the midday

Keywords

Canopy layer Roughness sublayer Spatial variability Temperature profile Turbulent fluxes Urban meteorology 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International Development EngineeringTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

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