Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 121, Issue 2, pp 339–350 | Cite as

Spatial Variability of Both Turbulent Fluxes and Temperature Profiles in an Urban Roughness Layer

  • M. KandaEmail author
  • R. Moriwaki
  • F. Kasamatsu


The spatial variability of both turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) and temperature profiles within and above the canopy layer (CL) were investigated experimentally in a densely built-up residential area in Tokyo, Japan. Using five towers with measuring devices, each tower isolated from the others by at least 200 m, we collected high-frequency measurements of velocity and temperature at a height z=1.8 z H, where z H, the mean building height in the area, is 7.3 m. Also, temperature profiles were measured from z=0.4 to 1.8 z H. The ‘areal mean’ geometric parameters that were obtained for the areas within 200 m of each tower were fairly homogeneous among the tower sites. The main results are as follows: (1) The spatial variability of all RSL turbulent statistics, except the sensible heat flux, was comparable to that reported in a pine forest. Also, the variability decreased with increasing friction velocity. (2) The spatial variability of the RSL sensible heat flux was larger than that reported in a pine forest. Also, the variability depended on the time of the day and became larger in the morning. The difference among the sites was well related to the areal fraction of vegetation. (3) The spatial variability of the CL temperature profile depended on the time of the day and became larger in the morning. Nevertheless, the spatial standard deviation of CL temperature was always below 0.7 K. (4) It is suggested that the “warming-up” process in the morning when heat storage is dominant increases the spatial variation of RSL sensible heat flux and CL temperature according to the local properties around each tower and the variation decreases once there is further convective mixing in the midday


Canopy layer Roughness sublayer Spatial variability Temperature profile Turbulent fluxes Urban meteorology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albrecht F, Grunow J (1935) Untersuchungen der Vertikalen Luftzirkulation in der Grossstadt. Meteorol Z 50:93–98Google Scholar
  2. Briggs GA (1988) Surface inhomogeneity effects on convective diffusion. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 45:117–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng H, Castro IP (2002) Near wall flow over urban-like roughness. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 104:229–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christen A, Vogt R (2004) Energy and radiation balance of a central European city. Int J Climatol 24:1395–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Grimmond CSB, Oke TR (2002) Turbulent heat fluxes in urban areas: observations and a local-scale urban meteorological parametrization scheme (LUMPS). J Appl Meteorol 41:792–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grimmond CSB, Salmond JA, Oke TR, Offerle B, Lemonsu A (2004) Flux and turbulence measurements at a densely built-up site in marseille: heat, mass (water and carbon dioxide), and momentum. J Geophys Res 109:D24101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kanda M, Hino M (1994) Organized structures in developing turbulent flow within and above a plant canopy, using a large eddy simulation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 68:237–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kanda M, Inagaki A, Letzel MO, Raasch S, Watanabe T (2004a) LES study of the energy imbalance problem with eddy covariance fluxes. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 110:381–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kanda M, Moriwaki R, Kasamatsu F (2004b) Large eddy simulation of turbulent organized structure within and above explicitly resolved cube arrays. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 112:343–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kanda M, Moriwaki R, Kimoto Y (2005) Temperature profiles within and above an urban canopy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 115:499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kanda M (2006) Large-eddy simulation on the effect of surface geometry of building arrays on turbulent organized structure. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 118:151–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kastner-Klein P, Rotach MW (2004) Mean flow and turbulence characteristics in an urban roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 111:55–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Katul G, Hsieh C, Bowling D, Clark K, Shurpali N, Turnipseed A, Albertson J, Tu K, Hollinger D, Evans B, Offerle B, Anderson D, Ellsworth D, Vogel C, Oren R (1999) Spatial variability of turbulent fluxes in the roughness sublayer of an even-aged pine forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 93:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee X, Black TA (1993) Atmospheric turbulence within and above a douglas-fir stand, part 2: eddy fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 64:369–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Macdonald RW, Hall DJ, Walker S (1998) Wind tunnel measurements of wind speed within simulated urban arrays. BRE Client Report CR 243/98, Building Research EstablishmentGoogle Scholar
  16. McMillen RT (1988) An eddy correlation technique with extended applicability to non-simple terrain. Meteorol 43:231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moriwaki R, Kanda M (2004) Seasonal and diurnal fluxes of radiation, heat, water and CO2 over a suburban area. J Appl Meteorol 43:1700–1710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moriwaki R, Kanda M (2006) Flux-gradient profiles for momentum and heat over an urban surface. Theor Appl Climatol 84:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nakamura Y, Hiraoka H, Nishimura H (1986) Field investigation on air temperature distribution in an urban cavity space. J Archit Plann Environ Eng 364:48–56 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Nakamura Y, Oke TR (1988) Wind, temperature and stability conditions in an east-west oriented urban canyon. Atmos Environ 22:2691–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nunez M, Oke TR (1976) Long-wave radiative flux divergence and nocturnal cooling of the urban atmosphere II within an urban canyon. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 10:121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Raupach MR, Thom AS, Edwards I (1980) A wind-tunnel study of turbulent flow close to regularly arrayed rough surfaces. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 18:373–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Raupach MR, Finnigan JJ, Brunet Y (1996) Coherent eddies and turbulence in vegetation canopies: the analogy. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 78:351–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rotach MW (1999) On the influence of the urban roughness sublayer on turbulence and dispersion. Atmos Environ 33:4001–4008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Roth M (2000) Review of atmospheric turbulence over cities. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 126:941–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schmid HP, Cleugh HA, Grimmond CSB, Oke TR (1991) Spatial variability of energy fluxes in suburban terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 54:249–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schmid HP (1994) Source areas for scalars and scalar fluxes. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 67:293–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Twine TE, Kustas WP, Norman JM, Cook DR, Houser PR, Meyers TP, Prueger JH, Starks PJ, Wesley ML (2000) Correcting eddy-covariance flux underestimates over a grassland. Agric For Meteorol 103:279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International Development EngineeringTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations