Near-Surface Coherent Structures and The Vertical Momentum Flux in a Large-Eddy Simulation of the Neutrally-Stratified Boundary Layer
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The near-surface flow of a well-resolved large-eddy simulation of the neutrally-stratified planetary boundary layer is used to explore the relationships between coherent structures and the vertical momentum flux. The near-surface flow is characterized by transient streaks, which are alternating bands of relatively higher and lower speed flow that form parallel to the mean shear direction in the lower part of the boundary layer. Although individual streaks are transient, the overall flow is in a quasi-equilibrium state in which the streaks form, grow, decay and regenerate over lifetimes on the order of tens of minutes. Coupled with the streaky flow is an overturning circulation with alternating bands of updrafts and downdrafts approximately centered on the streaks. The surface stress is dominated by upward ejections of slower moving near-surface air and downward sweeps of higher speed air from higher in the boundary layer. Conditional sampling of the ejection and sweep events shows that they are compact, coherent structures and are intimately related to the streaks: ejections (sweeps) preferentially form in the updrafts (downdrafts) of the three-dimensional streak flow. Hence, consistent with other recent studies, we propose that the streak motion plays an important role in the maintenance of the surface stress by establishing the preferential conditions for the ejections and sweeps that dominate the surface stress. The velocity fluctuation spectra in the model near the surface have a k −1 spectral slope over an intermediate range of wavenumbers. This behaviour is consistent with recent theoretical predictions that attempt to evaluate the effects of organized flow, such as near-surface streaks, on the variance spectra.
KeywordsAtmospheric surface layer Ejections Large-eddy simulation Streaks Sweeps Turbulence
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