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Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 120, Issue 2, pp 315–351 | Cite as

Urban Thermodynamic Island in a Coastal City Analysed from an Optimized Surface Network

  • Grégoire Pigeon
  • Aude Lemonsu
  • Nathalie Long
  • Joël Barrié
  • Valéry Masson
  • Pierre Durand
Article

Abstract

Within the framework of ESCOMPTE, a French experiment performed in June and July 2001 in the south-east of France to study the photo-oxidant pollution at the regional scale, the urban boundary layer (UBL) program focused on the study of the urban atmosphere over the coastal city of Marseille. A methodology developed to optimize a network of 20 stations measuring air temperature and moisture over the city is presented. It is based on the analysis of a numerical simulation, performed with the non-hydrostatic, mesoscale Meso-NH model, run with four nested-grids down to a horizontal resolution of 250 m over the city and including a specific parametrization for the urban surface energy balance. A three-day period was modelled and evaluated against data collected during the preparatory phase for the project in summer 2000. The simulated thermodynamic surface fields were analysed using an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition in order to determine the optimal network configuration designed to capture the dominant characteristics of the fields. It is the first attempt of application of this kind of methodology to the field of urban meteorology. The network, of 20 temperature and moisture sensors, was implemented during the UBL-ESCOMPTE experiment and continuously recorded data from 12 June to 14 July 2001. The measurements were analysed in order to assess the urban thermodynamic island spatio-temporal structure, also using EOF decomposition. During nighttime, the influence of urbanization on temperature is clear the field is characterized by concentric thermo-pleths around the old core of the city, which is the warmest area of the domain. The moisture field is more influenced by proximity to the sea and airflow patterns. During the day, the sea breeze often moves from west or south-west and consequently the spatial pattern for both parameters is characterized by a gradient perpendicular to the shoreline. Finally, in order to assess the methodology adopted, the spatial structures extracted from the simulation of the 2000 preparatory campaign and observations gathered in 2001 have been compared. They are highly correlated, which is a relevant validation of the methodology proposed. The relations between these spatial structures and geographical characteristics of the site have also been studied. High correlations between temperature spatial structure during nighttime and urban cover fraction or street aspect ratio are observed and simulated. For temperature during daytime or moisture during both daytime and nighttime these geographical factors are not correlated with thermodynamic fields spatial structures.

Keywords

Coastal city EOF Surface network UBL-ESCOMPTE Urban heat isand 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grégoire Pigeon
    • 1
  • Aude Lemonsu
    • 1
  • Nathalie Long
    • 2
  • Joël Barrié
    • 1
  • Valéry Masson
    • 1
  • Pierre Durand
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre National de Recherches MétéorologiquesMétéo-France/CNRS-GAMEToulouse CedexFrance
  2. 2.GREYC – CNRS UMR 6072CaenFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire d’AérologieUMR CNRS-UPS 5560ToulouseFrance

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