Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 109–131 | Cite as

Turbulence Over Urban-type Roughness: Deductions from Wind-tunnel Measurements

  • Ian P. CastroEmail author
  • Hong Cheng
  • Ryan Reynolds


Turbulence data from experiments conducted over a staggered cube array, modelling a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer in an urban environment, are presented. The results support the contention that organised eddy structures in the near-wall region differ significantly from those in regular smooth-wall flows or in rough-wall boundary layers with much smaller h/δ ratios (where δ and h are the boundary-layer thickness and the height of the roughness elements, respectively). Attention is concentrated on spatial correlations, spectra (and thus the dominant length and time scales), maps of anisotropy invariants and quadrant analyses of the stress tensor. Results are obtained within both the roughness sublayer (i.e. the region above the roughness but within which the flow is spatially inhomogeneous) and the canopy region (i.e. below the height of the roughness elements) and discussion includes consideration of the turbulence kinetic energy balance at various heights.


Eddy structures Rough-wall boundary layers Urban environment 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering SciencesUniversity of SouthamptonU.K
  2. 2.School of EngineeringUniversity of SurreyU.K

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