Advertisement

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 117, Issue 1, pp 131–148 | Cite as

Midsummer Energy Balance for the Southern Seas

  • Gerd Wendler
  • Brian Hartmann
  • Chris Wyatt
  • Martha Shulski
  • Henry Stone
Article

Abstract

During a ship voyage from Tasmania to Antarctica in summer 2000/01, radiative and meteorological measurements were continuously made, from which the surface energy budget was calculated. Sea conditions throughout the voyage ranged from open water to broken pack and finally to snow-covered unbroken sea ice in McMurdo Sound. The global radiation increased on average during the trip (to higher latitudes) as we travelled poleward. The net radiation, which was positive (toward the surface) on average, decreased however, mostly due to the increase in surface albedo. For open water, most of the net radiation is used for evapouration (61%), while for broken sea-ice conditions, nearly all energy is used for melting of the sea ice or heating of the ocean (96%). For unbroken snow-covered sea ice, the net radiation lies close to zero, due to the high surface albedo, which reached a mean value of 0.81. The sensible heat flux becomes the largest heat source and nearly all the energy is used for warming of the surface. Finally, a Radarsat image, on which the ship track was visible, was used to compare the ship observations with satellite derived ice types.

Keywords

Antarctica Energy budget Radarsat Sea ice 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison I., Brandt R., Warren S. (1993) ‘East Antarctic Sea Ice: Albedo, Thickness Distribution, and Snow Cover’. J. Geophys. Res. 98(C7), 12,417–12:429Google Scholar
  2. Ambach, W. 1974‘The Influence of Fractional Cloud Cover on the Net Radiation Balance of a Snow Surface with High Albedo’J. Glaciol.137384Google Scholar
  3. Carroll, J.J., Fitch, B. 1981‘Effects of Solar Elevation and Cloudiness of Snow Albedo at the South Pole’J. Geophys. Res.86521576Google Scholar
  4. Garatt, J.R. 1994The Atmospheric Boundary LayerCambridge University PressCambridge316Google Scholar
  5. Gordon, A.L. 1981‘Seasonality of Southern Ocean Ice’J. Geophys. Res.8641934197Google Scholar
  6. Hauser, H., Wendler, G., Adolphs, U., Jeffries, M.O. 1999‘Energy Exchange in Early Spring Over Sea Ice in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean’J. Geophys. Res.10439253935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lettau, H. 1939Atmosphärische TurbulenzAkademische VerlagsgesellschaftLeipzig283Google Scholar
  8. Lopes, A., Nerzy, E., Touz, R., Laur, H. 1993‘Structure Detection and Statistical Adaptive Speckle Filtering in SAR Images’Int. J. Remote Sens.1417351758Google Scholar
  9. King, J.C., Turner, J. 1997Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology, Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science SeriesCambridge University PressU.K.409Google Scholar
  10. Lythe, M., Hauser, A., Wendler, G. 1999‘Classification of Sea Ice Types in the Ross Sea Antarctica from SAR and AVHRR Imagery’Int. J. Remote Sens.2030733085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Makshtas, A.P. 1991The Heat Budget of Arctic Ice in the WinterInternational Glaciological SocietyCambridge U.K.78Google Scholar
  12. Smith, D.M. 1996‘Speckle Reduction and Segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar images’Int. J. Remote Sens.1220432057Google Scholar
  13. Stearns, C., Wendler, G. 1988‘Research Results from Antarctic Automatic Weather Station’Rev. Geophys.264561Google Scholar
  14. Untersteiner, N. 1961‘On the Mass and Heat Balance of Arctic Sea Ice’Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol.1211511182Google Scholar
  15. Vihma, T., Uotila, J., Cheng, B., and Launiainen, J.: (2002), ‘Surface Heat Budget over the Weddell Sea: Buy Results and Model Comparison’, J. Geophys. Res. 107(C2), 10.1029/2000JC000372.Google Scholar
  16. Warren, S. 1982‘Optical Properties of Snow’Rev. Geophys.206789Google Scholar
  17. Wendler, G. 1986‘The Radiation Paradox on the Slopes of the Antarctic Continent’Polarforschung563341Google Scholar
  18. Wendler, G., Adolphs, U., Hauser, A., Moore, B. 1997On the Surface Energy Budget of Sea IceJ. Glaciol.43122130Google Scholar
  19. Wendler, G., Moore, B., Hartmann, B., Stuefer M., and Flint, R.: (2004), ‘The Effects of Multiple Reflection and Albedo on the Net Radiation in the Pack Ice Zones of Antarctica’, J. Geophys. Res. 109, DO6113.10.1029/2003JD003927.Google Scholar
  20. Worby, A.P., Allison, A. 1991‘Ocean-atmosphere Exchange over thin, Variable Concentration Antarctic Pack Ice’Ann. Glaciol.15184190Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerd Wendler
    • 1
  • Brian Hartmann
    • 1
  • Chris Wyatt
    • 1
  • Martha Shulski
    • 1
  • Henry Stone
    • 1
  1. 1.Geophysical InstituteUniversity of AlaskaFairbanksU.S.A

Personalised recommendations