Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 117, Issue 1, pp 111–129

Aircraft Observations of Air-mass Modification Over the Sea of Okhotsk during Sea-ice Growth

  • Jun Inoue
  • Masayuki Kawashima
  • Yasushi Fujiyoshi
  • Masaaki Wakatsuchi
Article

Abstract

In order to quantitatively investigate the role of leads and sea-ice in air-mass modification, aircraft observations were conducted over the partially ice-covered Sea of Okhotsk. We investigated two cold-air outbreak events with different sea-ice concentrations. In both cases, the difference between the temperatures of surface air and the sea surface (ΔT) dropped rapidly with the accumulated fetch-width of leads up to about 35-40 km, and then decreased very slowly. The surface sensible heat flux originating from open water was about 300 W m−2 within a few kilometres from the coast and decreased with increasing accumulated fetch-width. The sensible heat flux was about 100 W m−2 on average. These results indicate that the downwind air-mass modification depends mainly on the total (accumulated) extent of open water. The total buoyancy flux \(\left(\overline {w'T \, '_v}\right)\) calculated by the joint frequency distribution method correlated very well with ice concentration. Such a relationship was not clear in the case of the moisture flux \((\overline {w'q'})\). The ratio between rising thermals \(\left(\overline {w^+T^+_v}\right) \) and cold downdrafts \(\left(\overline {w^-T^-_v}\right)\) differed significantly between upwind and downwind regions; that is, the buoyancy flux was dominated by \(\overline {w^+T^+_v} \) in the developing stage of the boundary layer, while \(\overline {w^-T^-_v} \) also became important after the development of the boundary layer.

Keywords

Accumulated fetch-width of leads Leads Sea-ice Sea of Okhotsk Turbulent heat flux 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brümmer, B., Rump, B., Kruspe, G. 1992‘A Cold Air Outbreak near Spitsbergen in Springtime – Boundary-Layer Modification and Cloud Development’Boundary-Layer Meteorol.611346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brümmer, B. 1996‘Boundary-Layer Modification in Wintertime Cold-air Outbreaks from the Arctic Sea Ice’Boundary-Layer Meteorol.80109125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cavalieri, D.J., Parkinson, C.L. 1987‘On the Relationship Between Atmospheric Circulation and the Fluctuations in the Sea Ice Extents of the Bering and Okhotsk Seas’J. Geophys. Res.9271417162Google Scholar
  4. Chou, S.-H., Atlas, D., Yeh, E.-N. 1986‘Turbulence in a Convective Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer’J. Atmos. Sci.43547564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chou, S.-H., Zimmerman, J. 1989‘Bivariate Conditional Sampling of Buoyancy Flux During an Intense Cold-air Outbreak’Boundary-Layer Meteorol.4693112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Curry, J.A., Schramm, J.L., Ebert, E.E. 1995‘Sea Ice-Albedo Climate Feedback Mechanism’J. Climate8240247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dmitriev, V.K., Strunin, M.A. 1985‘The System of Introduction of Interdependent Corrections for Airplane Measurements of Wind Speed and Temperature of Air Fluxes’Trudy TsAO158104112(in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. Honda, M., Yamazaki, K., Nakamura, H., Takeuchi, K. 1999‘Dynamic and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Atmospheric Response to Anomalous Sea–ice Extent in the Sea of Okhotsk’J. Climate1233473358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Inoue, J., Honda, M., Kawashima, M. 2001‘Air Mass Transformation Processes over the Southwestern Region of the Ice-Covered Sea of Okhotsk during Cold Air Outbreaks’J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan79657670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Inoue, J., Ono, J., Tachibana, Y., Honda, M., Iwamoto, K., Fujiyoshi, Y., Takeuchi, K. 2003‘Characteristics of Heat Transfer over the Ice-Covered Sea of Okhotsk During Cold Air Outbreaks’J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan8110571067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Inoue, J., Wakatsuchi, M., Fujiyoshi, Y. 2004‘Ice Floe Distribution in the Sea of Okhotsk in the Period when Sea-Ice Extent is Advancing’Geophys. Res. Lett.31L20303doi:10.1029/2004GL020809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwamoto, K., Domon, K., Honda, M., Tachibana, Y., Takeuchi, K. 2001‘Estimation of Surface Heat Flux Based on Rawinsonde Observation in the Southern Part of the Sea of Okhotsk Under Ice-Covered Condition’J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan79687694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ledley, T.S. 1988‘A Coupled Energy Balance Climate Sea–ice Model: Impact of Sea Ice and Leads on Climate’J. Geophys. Res.931591915932Google Scholar
  14. Mahrt, L., Paumier, J. 1984‘Heat Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer’J. Atmos. Sci.4130613075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maykut, G.A. 1978‘Energy Exchange over Young Sea Ice in the Central Arctic’J.Geophys. Res.8336463658Google Scholar
  16. Mezrin, M.Y. 1997‘Humidity Measurements from Aircraft’Atmos. Res.445359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ohshima, K.I., Watanabe, T., Nihashi, S. 2003‘Surface Heat Budget of the Sea of Okhotsk During 1987–2001 and the Role of Sea Ice on it’J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan81653677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Okubo, H., Mannoji, N. 1994‘The Influence of the Sea Ice Distribution on the Surface Wind Forecast by Japan Spectral Model’Tenki41847851(in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Pahomov, L.A. 1962‘Airplane Instrument for Measurement of Wind Speed’Trudy TsAO416271(in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. Renfrew, I.A., Moore, G.W.K. 1999‘An Extreme Cold-Air Outbreak over the Labrador Sea: Roll Vortices and Air–sea Interaction’Mon. Wea. Rev.12723792394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Smith, P.C., MacPherson, J.I. 1996‘Airborne Surveys of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Above the Marginal Ice Zone on the Newfoundland Shelf ’Atmosphere–Ocean34161184Google Scholar
  22. Smith, S.D., Muench, R.D., Pease, C.H. 1990‘Polynyas and Leads: An Overview of Physical Processes and Environment’J. Geophys. Res.9594619479Google Scholar
  23. Strunin, M.A. 1997‘Meteorological Potential for Contamination of Arctic Troposphere: Aircraft Measuring System for Atmospheric Turbulence and Methods for Calculation it Characteristics: Archive and Database of Atmospheric Turbulence’Atmos. Res.441735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stull, R.B. 1988An Introduction to Boundary Layer MeteorologyKluwer Academic PublishersDordrechtGoogle Scholar
  25. Toyota, T., Kawamura, T., Wakatsuchi, M. 2000‘Heat Budget in the Ice Cover of the Southern Okhotsk Sea Derived from In situ Observations’J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan78585596Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Inoue
    • 1
  • Masayuki Kawashima
    • 2
  • Yasushi Fujiyoshi
    • 2
  • Masaaki Wakatsuchi
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaU.S.A
  2. 2.Institute of Low Temperature ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST)Japan Science and Technology AgencyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations