Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 353–360 | Cite as

Sensory integration intervention: Historical concepts, treatment strategies and clinical experiences in three patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency

  • S. V. Kratz
Symposium on Neurotransmitter Disorders


This paper is a review of clinical experiences providing developmental therapy services for three boys diagnosed with paediatric neurotransmitter disease. The clinical presentation of paediatric neurotransmitter diseases might parallel other diagnostic characteristics seen in a typical paediatric therapy clinic (i.e. hypotonia, motor and cognitive delays, coordination, expressive speech, and ocular motor difficulties.) From the clinical perspective of the author, sensory integrative function is but one aspect of a thorough evaluation and treatment plan for all patients. The manifestations of sensory integration dysfunction (SID), also known as sensory processing dysfunction (SPD), can occur alone or be concurrent with a variety of known medical, behavioural and neurological diagnoses. These manifestations of SPD can include, but are not limited to: hypotonia, hyperactivity, irritability, distractibility, attention difficulties, learning difficulties, clumsiness and incoordination, instability, poor motor skills, social-emotional difficulties, and behavioural problems. This paper summarizes the theory and practice applications of sensory integration. The author discusses clinical experiences providing occupational therapy services utilizing sensory integration methods and strategies with clients who were eventually diagnosed with SSADH deficiency.


Down Syndrome Sensory Integration Ocular Motor Vestibular Input Developmental Coordination Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



paediatric neurotransmitter disease


sensory integration


Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests


sensory processing dysfunction


succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase



The author wishes to acknowledge the Pediatric Neurotransmitter Disease Association, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. This paper complies with the requests of NIH Grant # 1R13NS060363–01.

The author also wishes to acknowledge with deepest gratitude, the countless clients and their families who continue to graciously teach us how to fuse theory into practice within the clinic and community settings.

The Symposium was supported in part by R13 NS 60363 from the NIH NINDS and Office of Rare Diseases (ORD), and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.


  1. American Occupational Therapy Association (2008) The Guide to Occupational Therapy Practice, 2nd edn. Occupational Therapy Practice Framework Practice Guidelines – Complete Set. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.Google Scholar
  2. Ayres AJ (1972) Sensory Integration and Learning Disorders. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  3. Ayres AJ (1989) Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  4. Ayres AJ (2004) Sensory Integration and the Child: Understanding Hidden Sensory Challenges. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Baranek GT (2002) Efficacy of sensory and motor interventions for children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 32: 397–422. doi: 10.1023/A:1020541906063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bumin G, Kayihan H (2001) Effectiveness of two different sensory-integration programmes for children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Disabil Rehabil 23(9): 394–399. doi: 10.1080/09638280010008843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bundy AC (2002) Play theory and sensory integration. In: Bundy AC, Lane SJ, Fisher AG, Murray EA, eds. Sensory Integration: Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: FA Davis Company.Google Scholar
  8. Daems J, ed. (1994) Reviews of Research in Sensory Integration. Torrance, CA: Sensory Integration International.Google Scholar
  9. Fisher AG, Murray EA (2002) Introduction to sensory integration theory. In: Bundy AC, Lane SJ, Fisher AG, Murry EA, eds. Sensory Integration: Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 3–24.Google Scholar
  10. Franklin L, Deitz J, Jirikowic T, Astley S (2008) Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: problem behaviors and sensory processing. Am J Occup Ther 62(3): 265–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hanson E, Kalish LA, Bunce E, et al (2007) Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 37(4): 628–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Miller LJ, Reisman JE, McIntosh DN, Simon J (2001) An ecological model of sensory modulation: performance of children with fragile X syndrome, autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sensory modulation dysfunction. In: Roley SS, Blanche EI, Schaarf RC, eds. Understanding the Nature of Sensory Integration with Diverse Populations. San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders, 57–88.Google Scholar
  13. Mulligan S (2003a) Examining the evidence for occupational therapy using a sensory integration framework with children: part one. Sensory Integration Special Interest Section Quarterly 26(1): 1–4.Google Scholar
  14. Mulligan S (2003b) Examining the evidence for occupational therapy using a sensory integration framework with children: part two. Sensory Integration Special Interest Section Quarterly 26(2): 1–5.Google Scholar
  15. Ottenbacher KJ (2002) Research in sensory integration: empirical perceptions and progress. In: Bundy AC, et al, eds. Sensory Integration: Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 387–397.Google Scholar
  16. Parham LD, Mailloux Z (2001) Sensory integration. In: Case Smith J, ed. Occupational Therapy for Children. 4th edn. St Louis, MO: Mosby, 329–381.Google Scholar
  17. Parham LD, Cohn ES, Spitzer S, et al (2007) Fidelity in sensory integration intervention research. Am J Occup Ther 61: 216–227.Google Scholar
  18. Pfeiffer B, Kinnealey M (2008) Autistic mannerisms reduced by sensory treatment. ScienceDaily 27 April 2008. <>.
  19. Schaaf RC, Miller LJ (2005) Occupational therapy using a sensory integrative approach for children with developmental disabilities. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 11(2): 143–148. doi: 10.1002/mrdd.20067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schneider ML, Moore CF, Gajewski L, et al (2007) Sensory processing disorder in a nonhuman primate model: Evidence for occupational therapy practice. Am J Occup Ther 61: 247–253.Google Scholar
  21. Schneider ML, Moore CF, DeJesus OT, Converse AK (2008) Prenatal stress influences on neurobehavior, stress reactivity, and dopaminergic function in rhesus macaques. In: Burbacher T, Sachett GP, Grant KS, eds. Primate Models of Children's Health and Developmental Disabilities. New York: Elsevier, Inc., 213–258.Google Scholar
  22. Smith Roley S, Blanche EI, Schaaf RC (2001) Understanding the Nature of Sensory Integration with Diverse Populations. San Antonio, TX, USA: Therapy Skill Builders.Google Scholar
  23. Uyanik M, Bumin G, Kayihan H (2003) Comparison of different therapy approaches in children with Down syndrome. Pediatr Int 45(1): 68–73. doi: 10.1046/j.1442-200X.2003.01670.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vargas S, Camilli G (1999) A meta-analysis of research on sensory integration treatment. Am J Occup Ther 53(2): 189–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Special Therapies, Inc.WaukeshaUSA

Personalised recommendations