Effect of testosterone metabolites on ABC half-transporter relative gene expression in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy
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X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder associated with reduced very long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation, mainly affecting the nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the testes. The clinical manifestations of hypogonadism, alopecia and the impairment of the enzyme 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, clearly point to an involvement of androgens in this pathology. The disease is characterized by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which codes for the peroxisomal ABC half-transporter ALDP, and by a broad range of clinical manifestations. The altered function of ALDP can be compensated by the overexpression of proteins belonging to the same family of ABC half-transporters. A promising therapeutic approach is represented by the activation of these proteins by specific agonists. In this study we evaluated the effect of the testosterone metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol) on the expression of the ABC half-transporters encoded by the ABCD2 and ABCD3 genes, in fibroblasts drawn from controls and from two affected brothers. The two patients presented the same mutation in exon 9 but had different clinical manifestations, one patient being asymptomatic and the second one severely affected. When the cells were stimulated with testosterone metabolites, only the severely affected patient showed a significant increase in ABCD2 mRNA levels, while the ABCD3 expression remained unchanged in both patients.