Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency masquerading as a mitochondrial encephalopathy
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Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a rare disorder of creatine synthesis. We report a patient who presented at 10 months of age with hypotonia and global developmental delay. Subsequently, she developed seizures and choreoathetosis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal bilaterally in the globus pallidus on T2-weighted images. Mitochondrial respiratory chain studies revealed low complex I activity (in muscle 0.052 nmol NADH oxidized per min per unit citrate synthase, controls 0.166 ± 0.047; in fibroblasts 0.080 nmol NADH oxidized per min per unit citrate synthase, controls 0.197 ± 0.034). The true diagnosis was suspected at 21 months of age because of persistent low plasma and urine creatinine concentrations. GAMT activity was undetectable in fibroblasts and compound heterozygous mutations were found in the GAMT gene (c.327G>A and c.522G>A). The patient was treated with creatine, dietary arginine restriction and ornithine supplements. Her movement disorder and seizures resolved but she still has severe cognitive impairment and no expressive language. The occurrence of secondary respiratory chain abnormalities in GAMT deficiency may lead to misdiagnosis, particularly as the clinical and radiological features resemble those seen in mitochondrial encephalopathies. It is important to establish the correct diagnosis because specific treatment is available.