Anxiety and depression in the acute porphyrias
- 199 Downloads
A previous study of self-rated psychosocial aspects in patients with acute porphyria found that depression, and particularly anxiety, is more common in porphyria patients than in the general population or general medical outpatient attenders. Nearly half of the sample (46%) reported at least some problem with anxiety and/or depression: anxiety caseness was 26% and depression caseness was 13%. This paper extends our previous observations and investigates further the associations between porphyria and anxiety, depression and general mental health in 90 patients (58 acute intermittent porphyria, 32 variegate porphyria). The findings of this study confirm that anxiety is raised in patients with acute intermittent porphyria and with variegate porphyria, in both males and females, compared to the normative population and, using a series of questionnaires exploring the physical and psychosocial features of anxiety, that this anxiety is experienced as a ‘relatively stable personality trait’, rather than a ‘transitory emotional state’ (i.e. intrinsic rather than secondary to the porphyria).
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Andersson E (1993) The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Homogeneity of the subscales. Soc Behav Pers 21: 197–204.Google Scholar
- Beck AT, Steer RA (1993) Beck Anxiety Inventory Manual. San Antonio, USA, The Psychological Corporation: Harcourt Brace and Company.Google Scholar
- Burgoyne K, Swartz R, Ananth J (1995) Porphyria: reexamination of psychiatric implications. Psychother Psychosomatics 64: 121–130.Google Scholar
- Goldberg G, Williams P (1988) A User's Guide to the General Health Questionnaire. London: NFER-Nelson.Google Scholar
- Snaith RP, Zigmond AS (1994) The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Manual. Windsor: NFER-NELSON.Google Scholar
- Spielberger CD (1983) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden Inc.Google Scholar
- Thadani H, Deacon A, Peters T (2000) Diagnosis and management of porphyria. Br Med J 320: 1647–1651.Google Scholar
- Tishler PV, Woodward B, O'Connor J, et al (1985) High prevalence of intermittent acute porphyria in a psychiatric population. Am J Psychiatry 12: 1430–1435.Google Scholar