An overview on the exponential growth of non-invasive diagnosis of diabetes mellitus from exhaled breath by nanostructured metal oxide Chemi-resistive gas sensors and μ-preconcentrator

  • Ramji Kalidoss
  • Snekhalatha UmapathyEmail author


The characterization of acetone in exhaled breath reflects the internal metabolism of glucose in bloodstream and airways. This phenomenon provides a great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and has inspired medical sodalities as an alternative diagnostic tool. This review discusses about the origination of acetone in breath, its correlation with blood glucose level along with the ways to collect breath sample. Furthermore, we also discuss the detection of acetone by chemical sensors with emphasis on the use of pre-concentrators on a single lab-on-chip for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Finally, this review outlines the future directions for the detection of acetone from exhaled breath. The first part of the review introduces the biochemistry and prevalence of diabetes in India along with the existing techniques to estimate the concentration of acetone. The second part focuses on the semiconducting metal oxide and polymer gas sensors which discusses about tailoring the dynamic sensitivity range and selectivity towards acetone in breath. The third part elaborates on the ways to pre-concentrate the target biomarkers along with future perspectives for non-invasive diabetes diagnosis. Finally we also provide the perspectives on future challenges to make it to clinical practice.

Graphical abstract



Acetone Diabetes mellitus Micro-cantilever Pre-concentrator 



The authors are thankful to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, SRM Institute of Science & Technology for encouraging the research and providing necessary financial assistance.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringSRM Institute of Science and TechnologyKattankulathurIndia

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