Presently, cardiovascular interventions such as stent deployment and balloon angioplasty are performed under x-ray guidance. However, x-ray fluoroscopy has poor soft tissue contrast and is limited by imaging in a single plane, resulting in imprecise navigation of endovascular instruments. Moreover, x-ray fluoroscopy exposes patients to ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast agents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe and enabling modality for cardiovascular interventions. Interventional cardiovascular MR (iCMR) is a promising approach that is in stark contrast with x-ray fluoroscopy, offering high-resolution anatomic and physiologic information and imaging in multiple planes for enhanced navigational accuracy of catheter-based devices, all in an environment free of radiation and its deleterious effects. While iCMR has immense potential, its translation into the clinical arena is hindered by the limited availability of MRI-visible catheters, wire guides, angioplasty balloons, and stents. Herein, we aimed to create application-specific, devices suitable for iCMR, and demonstrate the potential of iCMR by performing cardiovascular catheterization procedures using these devices. Tools, including catheters, wire guides, stents, and angioplasty balloons, for endovascular interventions were functionalized with a polymer coating consisting of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, followed by endovascular deployment in the pig. Findings from this study highlight the ability to image and properly navigate SPIO-functionalized devices, enabling interventions such as successful stent deployment under MRI guidance. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept for rapid prototyping of iCMR-specific endovascular interventional devices that can take advantage of the capabilities of iCMR.
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The authors thank Matthew G. Landry for assistance with schematics. This work was supported by the George and Angelina Kostas Research Center for Cardiovascular Nanomedicine. CHL acknowledges support from the Houston Methodist Specialty Physician Group Grant Program. VS-I is grateful for support from the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT, 490202/278979). MF gratefully acknowledges support from the Ernest Cockrell Jr. Presidential Distinguished Chair at the Houston Methodist Research Institute. MF serves on the Board of Directors of Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Blanco, E., Segura-Ibarra, V., Bawa, D. et al. Functionalization of endovascular devices with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Biomed Microdevices 21, 38 (2019) doi:10.1007/s10544-019-0393-x
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR)
- Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles
- Polymer coatings