Steady state crossflow microfiltration (CMF) is an important and often necessary means of particle separation and concentration for both industrial and biomedical processes. The factors controlling the performance of CMF have been extensively reviewed. A major factor is transmembrane pressure (TMP). Because microchannels have small height, they tend to have high pressure gradients in the feed-flow direction. In the extreme, these gradients may even reverse the pressure across the membrane (inciting backflow). It is therefore desirable to compensate for the effect of feed-flow on the TMP, aiming at constant transmembrane pressure (cTMP) at a value which maximizes filtrate flux. This is especially critical during filtration of deformable particles (e.g. erythrocytes) through low intrinsic resistance membranes. Filtration flux is generally taken to be directly proportional to TMP, with pressure drop along the channel decreasing in the flow direction. A co-current flow of filtrate in a suitably designed filtrate collecting channel is shown to allow the TMP to remain constant and permit the sieving surface to perform optimally, permitting up to twice as much filtration over that of a naïve configuration. Manipulation of the filtrate channel may be even more beneficial if it prevents backflow that might otherwise occur at the end of a sufficiently long channel. Experiments with erythrocyte suspensions, reported here, validate these concepts.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Support for this work was provided in part by Grant 1R21HL088162 from the National Institute of Health, and Vizio Medical Devices, LLC. The authors also thank Columbia Medical Center Blood Bank and blood donors. We acknowledge gratefully the assistance of Dr. Robert von Gutfeld as well as our whole medical team, most especially the late Dr. James Jones.
L.I. Amar, D. Guisado, M. Faria, et al., Erythrocyte fouling on micro-engineered membranes. Biomed. Microdevices 20, 55 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bird RB, Stewart WE, Lightfoot EN. Transport phenomena: Wiley; 2007Google Scholar
C. Charcosset, Membrane processes in biotechnology: An overview. Biotechnol. Adv. 24, 482–492 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
M. Dickson, L. Amar, M. Hill, J. Schwartz, E. Leonard, A scalable, micropore, platelet rich plasma separation device. Biomed. Microdevices 14, 1095–1102 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
D.A. Drew, J.A. Schonberg, G. Belfort, Lateral inertial migration of a small sphere in fast laminar flow through a membrane duct. Chem. Eng. Sci. 46, 3219–3224 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R.W. Field, D. Wu, J.A. Howell, B.B. Gupta, Critical flux concept for microfiltration fouling. J. Membr. Sci. 100, 259–272 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
H.M. Ji, V. Samper, Y. Chen, C.K. Heng, T.M. Lim, L. Yobas, Silicon-based microfilters for whole blood cell separation. Biomed. Microdevices 10, 251–257 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. Kromkamp, A. Bastiaanse, J. Swarts, G. Brans, R.G.M. van der Sman, R.M.A. Boom, Suspension flow model for hydrodynamics and concentration polarisation in crossflow microfiltration. J. Membr. Sci. 253, 67–79 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
E.F. Leonard, C.S. Vassilieff, The deposition of rejected matter in membrane separation processes. Chem. Eng. Commun. 30, 209–217 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
M.S. Maria, B. Kumar, T. Chandra, A. Sen, Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. Biomed. Microdevices 17, 115 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R.O. Rodrigues, D. Pinho, V. Faustino, Lima R. A simple microfluidic device for the deformability assessment of blood cells in a continuous flow. Biomed. Microdevices 17, 108 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
N. Rossignol, L. Vandanjon, P. Jaouen, F. Quemeneur, Membrane technology for the continuous separation microalgae/culture medium: Compared performances of cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Aquac. Eng. 20, 191–208 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
C.J. van Rijn, Nano and micro engineered membrane technology (Elsevier, 2004)Google Scholar
C.J. van Rijn, W. Nijdam, S. Kuiper, G.J. Veldhuis, H. van Wolferen, M. Elwenspoek, Microsieves made with laser interference lithography for micro-filtration applications. J. Micromech. Microeng. 9, 170 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
N.A. Wagdare, A.T. Marcelis, O.B. Ho, R.M. Boom, C.J. van Rijn, High throughput vegetable oil-in-water emulsification with a high porosity micro-engineered membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 347, 1–7 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
N. Weeranoppanant, L. Amar, E. Tong, M. Faria, M.I. Hill, E.F. Leonard, Modeling of fouling in cross-flow microfiltration of suspensions. AICHE J. (2018)Google Scholar
A.L. Zydney, C.K. Colton, A concentration polarization model for the filtrate flux in cross-flow microfiltration of particulate suspensions. Chem. Eng. Commun. 47, 1–21 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar