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Biomedical Microdevices

, 20:89 | Cite as

Paper-based graphene oxide biosensor coupled with smartphone for the quantification of glucose in oral fluid

  • Yuan Jia
  • Hao Sun
  • Xiao Li
  • Dongke Sun
  • Tao Hu
  • Nan Xiang
  • Zhonghua Ni
Article

Abstract

Rapid, disposable, point-of-care (POC) oral fluid testing has gained considerable attention in recent years as saliva contains biomarker and components of the serum proteome that offer important information on both oral and systemic disease. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) coupled with smartphone reflectance sensing systems have long been considered to be an effective POC tool for the diagnostics of biomarkers in oral fluid. However, the existing portable systems are limited by the poor color distribution in the detection area as well as not being universally applicable. Therefore, using the properties of nanomaterials to our advantage, we present a simple, universally applicable approach that features graphene oxide (GO) coated μPADs coupled with smartphone-based colorimetric detection for the direct quantification of glucose. An integrated portable system is used to implement the approach. Owing to the enhanced reagents absorptivity, reactive efficiency and homogeneity of color distribution from the deposition of GO, the glucose assay performance was improved. Also, by using a self-developed app, the glucose concentrations in physiological range can be automatically quantified. Finally, the approach is universally applicable as the modification of μPADs with GO can be achieved without the use of any linker, binder or retention aid, which avoids possible enzyme cross contamination. The system was first calibrated by standard glucose buffer solutions, and the limit of detection as well as the linear dynamic range were found to be 0.02 mM and 0~1 mM, respectively, which are appropriate for analyzing glucose concentrations in a clinically relevant range. Finally, the system was used for quantifying glucose concentrations in artificial saliva and the results obtained using our portable system showed reasonable agreement with the actual use concentrations. Thus, the utility of the system in sensitively quantifying glucose concentrations in a portable, and repeatable manner is demonstrated.

Keywords

Graphene oxide Paper microfluidics Smartphone-based analytics Oral fluid sensing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Award No. SBK2018041725); Fundamental Research Funds for Southeast University (Award No. 3202008801), Southeast University ESI Key Subjects Fund (Award NO. 3302001801C1), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award No. 61604042), Fujian Province Outstanding Youth Talent Program (Award No. 601931), Fujian Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Award No. 2017 J01501), and the instrument access from National Science Park of Fuzhou University.

Supplementary material

10544_2018_332_MOESM1_ESM.docx (729 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 728 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design & Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical InstrumentsSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.School of Mechanical Engineering and AutomationFuzhou UniversityFuzhouChina
  4. 4.Fujian Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center of High-End Equipment ManufacturingFuzhouChina

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