Solid-state nanopore fabrication in LiCl by controlled dielectric breakdown
- 363 Downloads
Nanopore fabrication via the controlled dielectric breakdown (CDB) method offers an opportunity to create solid-state nanopores directly in salt solution with sub-nanometer precision. Driven by trap assisted current tunneling, the method uses localized defects, or traps, in the dielectric material to isolate a breakdown point and fabricate a single pore in less than 10 minutes. Here we present an approach to controlled dielectric breakdown of SiNx in which the nanopore is fabricated in LiCl buffer instead of the traditional KCl buffer. Direct fabrication in LiCl buffer promotes a uniform, symmetric, cylindrical nanopore structure that is fully wet and can be used for experiments in situ. We have shown that fabrication in LiCl reduces the necessity for overnight pore stabilization and allows for the desired analyte to be added in significantly less time than it would take if fabrication was performed in KCl. Pores created by this approach can be used for biosensing applications, including the detection of double-stranded DNA. DNA translocation experiments were conducted in both LiCl and KCl buffer. Experiments conducted in LiCl buffer resulted in about a 2-fold increase in dsDNA transport duration when compared to experiments conducted in KCl buffer of the same concentration. An increase in transport duration of over 10-fold in comparison to KCl was observed when the concentration of the LiCl buffer was increased by a factor of 3.
KeywordsControlled Dielectric Breakdown Lithium Chloride Trap Assisted Tunneling Slowed-down DNA translocation Solid-State Nanopore Nanotechnology DNA Detection
This work was supported by Rowan University Startup fund.
We thank Maksudul Mowla, Undergraduate Research Assistant, and Liza Guner, Summer Research Intern, for their assistance in data acquisition and analysis.
- E. Beamish, H. Kwok, V. Tabard-Cossa, M. Godin, Fine-tuning the Size and Minimizing the Noise of Solid-state Nanopores. J. Visual. Exp.: JoVE 80, 51081 (2013)Google Scholar
- S. Beckert, F. Stallmach, Water dynamics of LiCl solutions confined in nanopores. Diff. Fund. 18(13), 1–4 (2013)Google Scholar
- D. Branton, D.W. Deamer, A. Marziali, H. Bayley, S.A. Benner, T. Butler, M. Di Ventra, S. Garaj, A. Hibbs, X. Huang, S.B. Jovanovich, P.S. Krstic, S. Lindsay, X.S. Ling, C.H. Mastrangelo, A. Meller, J.S. Oliver, Y.V. Pershin, J.M. Ramsey, R. Riehn, G.V. Soni, V. Tabard-Cossa, M. Wanunu, M. Wiggin, J.A. Schloss, The potential and challenges of nanopore sequencing. Nat. Biotech. 26(10), 1146–1153 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- O.V. Krasilnikov, R.Z. Sabirov, V.I. Ternovsky, P.G. Merzliak, B.A. Tashmukhamedov, The structure of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin-induced ionic channel. Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 7(5), 467–473 (1988)Google Scholar
- Z. Liang, Z. Tang, J. Li, R. Hu, D. Yu, Q. Zhao, Interaction prolonged DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores. Nano 7(24), 10752–10759 (2015)Google Scholar
- D.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Lin, S. Tseng, J.-P. Hsu, Influence of electroosmotic flow on the ionic current rectification in a pH-regulated, conical nanopore. Nano 7(33), 14023–14031 (2015)Google Scholar
- E.C. Lopes, E. Valls, M.E. Figueroa, A. Mazur, F.G. Meng, G. Chiosis, P.W. Laird, N. Schreiber-Agus, J.M. Greally, E. Prokhortchouk, A. Melnick, Kaiso contributes to DNA methylation-dependent silencing of tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 68(18), 7258–7263 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- J. Shim, S. Banerjee, H. Qiu, K.K.H. Smithe, D. Estrada, J. Bello, E. Pop, K. Schulten, R. Bashir, Detection of methylation on dsDNA using nanopores in a MoS2 membrane. Nano (2017)Google Scholar
- Weast, R. C., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 70th Edition. Taylor & Francis: 1989Google Scholar
- Wolf, A. V., Aqueous solutions and body fluids: their concentrative properties and conversion tables. Hoeber Medical Division, Harper & Row: 1966Google Scholar
- Wu, J.; Register, L. F.; Rosenbaum, E. In Trap-assisted tunneling current through ultra-thin oxide, 1999 I.E. International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings. 37th Annual (Cat. No.99CH36296), 1999; pp 389–395Google Scholar