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Biomedical Microdevices

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 837–850 | Cite as

Development, manufacturing and application of double-sided flexible implantable microelectrodes

  • Wigand Poppendieck
  • Adam Sossalla
  • Marc-Oliver Krob
  • Christine Welsch
  • T. A. Khoa Nguyen
  • Wangsong Gong
  • Jack DiGiovanna
  • Silvestro Micera
  • Daniel M. Merfeld
  • Klaus-Peter Hoffmann
Article

Abstract

Many neuroprosthetic applications require the use of very small, flexible multi-channel microelectrodes (e.g. polyimide-based film-like electrodes) to fit anatomical constraints. By arranging the electrode contacts on both sides of the polyimide film, selectivity can be further increased without increasing size. In this work, two approaches to create such double-sided electrodes are described and compared: sandwich electrodes prepared by precisely gluing two single-sided structures together, and monolithic electrodes created using a new double-sided photolithography process. Both methods were successfully applied to manufacture double-sided electrodes for stimulation of the vestibular system. In a case study, the electrodes were implanted in the semicircular canals of three guinea pigs and proven to provide electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve. For both the monolithic electrodes and the sandwich electrodes, long-term stability and functionality was observed over a period of more than 12 months. Comparing the two types of electrodes with respect to the manufacturing process, it can be concluded that monolithic electrodes are the preferred solution for very thin electrodes (<20 μm), while sandwich electrode technology is especially suitable for thicker electrodes (40–50 μm).

Keywords

Microelectromechanical systems Neural microtechnology Neural prosthesis Polyimides Vestibular implant 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the European Commission in the Future & Emerging Technologies Open Scheme, Project 225929 (CLONS – A Closed-Loop Neural Prosthesis for Vestibular Disorders).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wigand Poppendieck
    • 1
  • Adam Sossalla
    • 1
  • Marc-Oliver Krob
    • 1
  • Christine Welsch
    • 1
  • T. A. Khoa Nguyen
    • 2
  • Wangsong Gong
    • 3
  • Jack DiGiovanna
    • 2
  • Silvestro Micera
    • 2
    • 4
  • Daniel M. Merfeld
    • 3
  • Klaus-Peter Hoffmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department Medical Engineering and NeuroprostheticsFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical EngineeringSt. IngbertGermany
  2. 2.Translational Neural Engineering LaboratoryÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Jenks Vestibular Physiology LaboratoryMassachusetts Eye and Ear InfirmaryBostonUSA
  4. 4.BioRobotics InstituteScuola Superiore Sant’AnnaPisaItaly

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