Biomedical Microdevices

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 371–379 | Cite as

Internalization and cytotoxicity analysis of silicon-based microparticles in macrophages and embryos

  • Elisabet Fernández-Rosas
  • Rodrigo Gómez
  • Elena Ibañez
  • Lleonard Barrios
  • Marta Duch
  • Jaume Esteve
  • José A. Plaza
  • Carme Nogués
Article

Abstract

Microchips can be fabricated, using semiconductor technologies, at microscopic level to be introduced into living cells for monitoring of intracellular parameters at a single cell level. As a first step towards intracellular chips development, silicon and polysilicon microparticles of controlled shape and dimensions were fabricated and introduced into human macrophages and mouse embryos by phagocytosis and microinjection, respectively. Microparticles showed to be non-cytotoxic for macrophages and were found to be localized mainly inside early endosomes, in tight association with endosomal membrane, and more rarely in acidic compartments. Embryos with microinjected microparticles developed normally to the blastocyst stage, confirming the non-cytotoxic effect of the particles. In view of these results silicon and polysilicon microparticles can serve as the frame for future intracellular chips development and this technology opens the possibility of real complex devices to be used as sensors or actuators inside living cells.

Keywords

Silicon Polysilicon Microparticle MEMS Cytotoxicity 

Abbreviations

CLSM

confocal laser scanning microscopy

FIB

focus ion beam

ICCs

IntraCellular Chips

MEMS

MicroElectroMechanical Systems

MP

microparticle

NP

nanoparticle

PF-MP

polystyrene fluorescent microspheres

pSi-MP

polysilicon MP

SEM

scanning electron microscope

Si-MP

Silicon MP

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

Supplementary material

10544_2009_9393_Fig1_ESM.gif (132 kb)
Fig. S1

Shows a schematic representation of the fabrication process of Si- and pSi-MPs. Video 1 shows a FIB sectioning of a macrophage with an internalized Si-MP. Video 2 presents a xyz reconstruction of consecutive focal planes of a macrophage with an internalized pSi-MP. Video S3 provides the microinjection process of a pSi-MP into the cytoplasm of a mouse one-cell embryo. (GIF 132 kb)

10544_2009_9393_Fig1_ESM.tif (3.6 mb)
High Resolution Image(TIFF 3724 kb)
Video 1

(AVI 2962 kb)

10544_2009_9393_MOESM2_ESM.avi (8.3 mb)
Video 2(AVI 8476 kb)
Video 3

(AVI 2005 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabet Fernández-Rosas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rodrigo Gómez
    • 2
  • Elena Ibañez
    • 1
  • Lleonard Barrios
    • 1
  • Marta Duch
    • 2
  • Jaume Esteve
    • 2
  • José A. Plaza
    • 2
  • Carme Nogués
    • 1
  1. 1.Departament Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i ImmunologiaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (CNM-CSIC)BarcelonaSpain

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