Electroporation based on hydrodynamic focusing of microfluidics with low dc voltage
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Microfluidics-based cell electroporation has many advantages in delivering small molecules into cells. In this study, hydrodynamic focusing of fluids with different conductivities has been used for high through-put cell electroporation at low voltage (<3 V) of continuous direct current (dc) power. Simulation results showed that an input voltage of only 1.5 V could generate an electric field intensity of about 1.17 kV cm−1 across the cell suspension flow in the squeezed area. The electropermeation of yeast cell was observed, showing a permeabilization percentage up to 70%.