Biomedical Microdevices

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 817–826

Oxygen sensitivity and biocompatibility of an implantable paramagnetic probe for repeated measurements of tissue oxygenation

  • Guruguhan Meenakshisundaram
  • Edward Eteshola
  • Ramasamy P. Pandian
  • Anna Bratasz
  • Karuppaiyah Selvendiran
  • Stephen C. Lee
  • Murali C. Krishna
  • Harold M. Swartz
  • Periannan Kuppusamy
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10544-009-9298-4

Cite this article as:
Meenakshisundaram, G., Eteshola, E., Pandian, R.P. et al. Biomed Microdevices (2009) 11: 817. doi:10.1007/s10544-009-9298-4

Abstract

The use of oxygen-sensing water-insoluble paramagnetic probes, such as lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO), enables repeated measurements of pO2 from the same location in tissue by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In order to facilitate direct in vivo application, and hence eventual clinical applicability, of LiNc-BuO, we encapsulated LiNc-BuO microcrystals in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an oxygen-permeable and bioinert polymer, and developed an implantable chip. In vitro evaluation of the chip, performed under conditions of sterilization, high-energy irradiation, and exposure to cultured cells, revealed that it is biostable and biocompatible. Implantation of the chip in the gastrocnemius muscle tissue of mice showed that it is capable of repeated and real-time measurements of tissue oxygenation for an extended period. Functional evaluation using a murine tumor model established the suitability and applicability of the chip for monitoring tumor oxygenation. This study establishes PDMS-encapsulated LiNc-BuO as a promising choice of probe for clinical EPR oximetry.

Keywords

EPR oximetry Oxygen sensor Particulate probe Encapsulation Polymer coating Biocompatible EPR probe 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guruguhan Meenakshisundaram
    • 1
    • 3
  • Edward Eteshola
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ramasamy P. Pandian
    • 1
    • 3
  • Anna Bratasz
    • 1
    • 3
  • Karuppaiyah Selvendiran
    • 1
    • 3
  • Stephen C. Lee
    • 2
    • 3
  • Murali C. Krishna
    • 4
  • Harold M. Swartz
    • 5
  • Periannan Kuppusamy
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Davis Heart and Lung Research InstituteOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Biophysics Spectroscopy Section, Radiation Biology BranchNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA
  5. 5.EPR Center for Viable SystemsDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA

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