Biomedical Microdevices

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 403–410

Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass

  • Yasutaka Hanada
  • Koji Sugioka
  • Hiroyuki Kawano
  • Ikuko Shihira Ishikawa
  • Atsushi Miyawaki
  • Katsumi Midorikawa


We demonstrate the fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) hollow microstructures embedded in photostructurable glass by a nonlinear multiphoton absorption process using a femtosecond (fs) laser. Fs laser direct writing followed by annealing and successive wet etching in dilute hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution resulted in the rapid manufacturing of microchips with 3-D hollow microstructures for the dynamic observation of living microorganisms and cells in fresh water. The embedded microchannel structure enables us to analyze the continuous motion of Euglena gracilis. A microchamber with a movable microneedle demonstrates its ability for the elucidation of the information transmission process in Pleurosira laevis. Such microchips, referred to as nano-aquariums realize the efficient and highly functional observation of microorganisms and cells.


Nano-aquarium Microchip Microorganism Living cell Femtosecond laser Photostructurable glass 


  1. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Opt. Express 12, 2120 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. J.W. Chen, J. Zybko, J. Clements, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 872, 309 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 55 (2003a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, Opt. Lett. 28, 1144 (2003b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 29, 2007 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Surf. Sci. 248, 172 (2005a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Opt. Express 13, 7225 (2005b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Y. Choi, M.A. McClain, M.C. LaPlaca, A.B. Frazier, M.G. Allen, Biomed. Microdevices 9, 7 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. K.M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. S.L. Fleming, C.L. Rieder, Cell Motil. Cytoskelet. 56, 141 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. A. Funfak, A. Brösing, M. Brand, J.M. Köhler, Lab Chip 7, 1132 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. E.N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R.J. Finlay, T.H. Her, J.P. Callan, E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 21, 2023 (1996)Google Scholar
  13. A.E. Guber, M. Heckele, D. Herrmann, A. Muslija, V. Saile, L. Eichhorn, T. Gietzelt, W. Hoffmann, P.C. Hauser, J. Tanyanyiwa, A. Gerlach, N. Gottschlich, G. Knebel, Chem. Eng. J. 101, 447 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. S. Haeberle, R. Zengerle, Lab Chip 7, 1094 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. T. Hongo, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, K. Midorikawa, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063517 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. I.S. Ishikawa, T. Ohsu, Diatom 11, 1 (1995)Google Scholar
  17. H. Kawano, I.S. Ishikawa, K. Obata, Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, S. Matsunaga, M. Watanabe, A. Miyawaki, Plos Biol. (submitted)Google Scholar
  18. S.H. Lee, S.I. Cho, C.S. Lee, B.G. Kim, Y.K. Kim, Sens. Actuators B 110, 164 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. C.H. Lin, C.H. Tsai, C.W. Pan, L.M. Fu, Biomed. Microdevices 9, 43 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. N. Makita, I.S. Ishikawa, Protoplasma 197, 86 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. A. Marcinkeviĉius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 277 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 76, 857 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, T. Hongo, K. Shihoyama, H. Takai, I. Miyamoto, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 78, 1029 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. K.M. Nichols, R. Rikmenspoel, J. Cell Sci. 23, 211 (1977)Google Scholar
  25. K.M. Nichols, R. Rikmenspoel, J. Cell Sci. 29, 233 (1978)Google Scholar
  26. K. Okano, E. Hunter, N. Fusetani, J. Exp. Zool. 276, 138 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. D.J. Stephens, V.J. Allan, Science 300, 82 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. K. Sugioka, M. Masuda, T. Hongo, Y. Cheng, K. Shihoyama, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 78, 815 (2004)Google Scholar
  29. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Y. Sun, Y.C. Kwok, N.T. Nguyen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1681 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. H. Wu, B. Huang, R.N. Zare, Lab Chip 5, 1393 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. C. Yamahata, C. Vandevyver, F. Lacharme, P. Izewska, H. Vogel, R. Freitag, M.A.M. Gijs, Lab Chip 5, 1083 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. K. Yoshimura, C. Shingyoji, K. Takahashi, Cell Motil. Cytoskelet. 36, 236 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasutaka Hanada
    • 1
  • Koji Sugioka
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Kawano
    • 2
  • Ikuko Shihira Ishikawa
    • 2
  • Atsushi Miyawaki
    • 2
  • Katsumi Midorikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.RIKEN-The Institute of Physical and Chemical ResearchSaitamaJapan
  2. 2.RIKEN-Brain Science InstituteSaitamaJapan

Personalised recommendations