Biomedical Microdevices

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 113–116 | Cite as

Electrophoresis-assisted single-cell electroporation for efficient intracellular delivery

  • Cristian Ionescu-Zanetti
  • Andrew Blatz
  • Michelle Khine


Single-cell electroporation, in which a focused electric field is applied to permeabilize an individual target cell using relatively low applied voltages, has demonstrated improved cell viability and transfection rates over conventional bulk electroporation set-ups. Here, we introduce a new strategy, in conjunction with single-cell electroporation, to enhance exogenous transport efficiency: electrophoresis delivery of compounds subsequent to electroporation. Electrophoresis is used to assist loading of otherwise impermeable exogenous anionic fluorescent molecules Calcein (Invitrogen, MW = 622) and Oregon Green Dextran (OGD, Invitrogen, MW = 70,000). For the larger dextran molecules, we demonstrate a protocol of first pre-concentrating at the cell-microfluidic channel interface. Then, the electric field is used to drive these molecules into the cell post-electroporation using 50–200 mV. We demonstrate delivery rate enhancements of more than an order of magnitude using electrophoresis compared to diffusion alone subsequent to electroporation.


Single-cell electroporation Electrophoresis Microfluidics 



Funding Source: National Institute of Health NIGMS 1 R43 GM075509-01.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristian Ionescu-Zanetti
    • 1
  • Andrew Blatz
    • 1
  • Michelle Khine
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Fluxion BiosciencesSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.School of EngineeringUniversity of California, MercedMercedUSA

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