Advertisement

Biology & Philosophy

, 34:33 | Cite as

The Social Amplification View of facial expression

  • Trip GlazerEmail author
Article
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

I offer a novel view of the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous facial expression of emotion. According to my Social Amplification View (SAV), facial expressions result from the interplay of two processes: an emotional process that activates specific facial muscles, though not always to the point of visible contraction, followed by a social cognitive process that amplifies these activations so that they may function more effectively as social signals. I argue that SAV outperforms both the Neurocultural View and the Behavioral Ecology View, as well as previously proposed syntheses of these views, in accounting for various empirical findings.

Keywords

Facial expression Emotion Neurocultural View Behavioral Ecology View Emotion perception Emotion recognition Audience effect Social cognition 

Notes

References

  1. Barrett LF (2006) Are emotions natural kinds? Perspect Psychol Sci 1(1):28–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett LF (2017) How emotions are made. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, BostonGoogle Scholar
  3. Bogaardt L, Johnstone RA (2016) Amplifiers and the origins of animal signals. Proc R Soc Lond B.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boucher JD (1983) Antecedents to emotions across cultures. In: Irvine SH, Berry JW (eds) Human assessment and cultural factors, NATO conference series (III Human factors), vol 21. Springer, BostonGoogle Scholar
  5. Burckhardt RW (1985) Darwin on animal behavior and evolution. In: Kohn D (ed) The Darwinian heritage. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 327–366Google Scholar
  6. Chovil N (1991) Social determinants of facial displays. J Nonverbal Behav 15:141–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crivelli C, Carrera P, Fernández-Dolz JM (2015) Are smiles a sign of happiness? Spontaneous expressions of judo winners. Evolut Hum Behav 36(1):52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crivelli C, Sergio J, Russell JA, Fernández-Dolz JM (2016) Reading emotions from faces in two indigenous societies. J Exp Psychol Gen 145(7):830–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darwin C (1872/2009) The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dinberg U (1990) Facial electromyography and emotional reactions. Psychophysiology 27(5):481–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ekman P (1972) Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotions. In: Cole J (ed) Nebraska symposium on motivation. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp 207–282Google Scholar
  12. Ekman P (1992) An argument for basic emotions. Cogn Emot 6(3/4):169–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ekman P (1994) Antecedent events and emotion metaphors. In: Ekman P, Davidson R (eds) The nature of emotion: fundamental questions. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 146–149Google Scholar
  14. Ekman P (2007) Emotions revealed. St. Martins Griffin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1969) The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica 1(1):49–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1971) Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. J Pers Soc Psychol 17(2):124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1982) Felt, false, and miserable smiles. J Nonverbal Behav 6:238–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ekman P, Keltner D (1997) Universal facial expressions of emotion: an old controversy and new findings. In: Segerstrâle U, Molnár P (eds) Nonverbal communication: where nature meets culture. Erlbaum, Mahway, pp 27–46Google Scholar
  19. Elfenbein HA, Ambady N (2002) On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 128(2):205–235Google Scholar
  20. Fernández-Dols JM, Ruiz-Belda MA (1997) Spontaneous facial behavior during intense emotional episodes: artistic truth and optical truth. In: Russell JA, Fernández-Dols JM (eds) The psychology of facial expression. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 255–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frank R (1988) Passions within reason. WW Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Frank MG, Ekman P (1993) Not all smiles are created equal: the differences between enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles. Humor 6(1):9–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fridlund AJ (1991) Sociality of solitary smiling: potentiation by an implicit audience. J Pers Soc Psychol 60(2):229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fridlund AJ (1994) Human facial expression: an evolutionary view. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Fridlund AJ, Schwartz GE, Fowler SC (1984) Pattern recognition of self-reported emotional state from multiple-site facial EMG activity during affective imagery. Pyschophysiology 21(6):622–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fridlund AJ, Kenworthy KG, Jaffey AK (1992) Audience effects in affective imagery: replication and extension to dysmorphic imagery. J Nonverbal Behav 16(3):191–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gendron M, Roberson D, van der Vyver JM, Barrett LF (2014) Perceptions of emotion from facial expressions are not culturally universal: evidence from a remote culture. Emotion 14(2):251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Green MS (2007) Self-expression. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Griffiths P, Scarantino A (2009) Emotions in the wild: the situated perspective on emotion. In: Robbins P, Aydede M (eds) Cambridge handbook of situated cognition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 437–453Google Scholar
  30. Gunnery S, Hall J, Ruben M (2012) The deliberate Duchenne smile: individual differences in expressive control. J Nonverbal Behav 37(1):29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haidt J, Keltner D (1999) Culture and facial expression: open-ended methods find more expressions and a gradient of recognition. Cogn Emot 13(3):225–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harper D (2006) Maynard Smith: amplifying the reasons for signal reliability. J Theor Biol 239(2):203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hasson O (1989) Amplifiers and the handicap principle in sexual selection: a different emphasis. Proc R Soc Lond B 235:383–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hasson O (2000) Letters to John Maynard Smith: August 21, 2000. Oren Hasson. http://www.orenhasson.com/EN/august2000.htm. Accessed 15 June 2018
  35. Heinroth O (1911) Beiträge zur Biologie, namentlich Ethologie und Psychologie der Anatiden. In: Schalow H (ed) Verhandlungen des 5. Internationalen Ornithologen-Kongresses in Berlin, 30. Mai bis 4. Juni. Deutsche Ornithologische Gesellschaft, Berlin, pp 289–702Google Scholar
  36. Hess U, Banse R, Kappas A (1995) The intensity of facial expression is determined by underlying affective state and social situation. J Pers Soc Psychol 69(2):280–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huxley J (1914) The courtship habits of the Great Crested Grrebe. Proc Zool Soc Lond 84(3):491–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jack RE, Garrod OGB, Schyns PG (2014) Dynamic facial expressions of emotion transmit an evolving hierarchy of signals over time. Curr Biol 24(2):187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jeung DY, Kim C, Chang SJ (2018) Emotional labor and burnout: a review of the literature. Yonsei Med J 59(2):187–193.  https://doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.2.187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaminski J, Hynds J, Morris P, Waller BM (2017) Human attention affects facial expressions in domestic dogs. Sci Rep 7:12914.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12781-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Keltner D, Tracy J, Sauter DA, Cordaro DC, McNeil G (2016) Expression of emotion. In: Barrett LF, Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM (eds) Handbook of emotions, 4th edn. Guilford Press, New York, pp 467–482Google Scholar
  42. Kraut RE, Johnston RE (1979) Social and emotional messages of smiling: an ethological approach. J Pers Soc Psychol 37:1539–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marler P, Evans C (1997) Animal sounds and human faces: Do they have anything in common? In: Russell JA, Fernández-Dols JM (eds) The psychology of facial expression. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 133–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Matsumoto D, Keltner D, Shiota MN, Frank MG, O’Sullivan M (2008) What’s in a face? Facial expressions as signals of discrete emotions. In: Lewis M, Haviland JM, Barrett LF (eds) Handbook of emotions, 3rd edn. Guilford Press, New York, pp 211–234Google Scholar
  45. Maynard Smith J, Harper D (2004) Animal signals. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Panksepp J (2006) The core emotional systems of the mammalian brain: the fundamental substrates of human emotions. In: Corrigal J, Payne H, Wilkinson H (eds) About a body: working with the embodied mind in psychotherapy. Routledge, Hove, pp 14–32Google Scholar
  47. Panksepp J, Biven L (2012) The archaeology of mind. WW Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Parkinson B (2005) Do facial movements express emotions or communicate intentions? Personal Soc Psychol Rev 9(4):278–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Partala T, Surakka V, Vanhala T (2006) Real-time estimation of emotional experiences from facial expressions. Interact Comput 18(2):208–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pochedly JT, Widen SC, Russell JA (2012) What emotion does the ‘facial expression of disgust’ express? Emotion 12(6):1315–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reisenzein R, Bördgen S, Holtbernd T, Matz D (2006) Evidence for strong dissociation between emotion and facial displays: the case of surprise. J Pers Soc Psychol 91(2):295–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Russell JA (1994) Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of cross-cultural studies. Psychol Bull 115(1):102–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Russell JA (2009) Emotion, core affect, and psychological construction. Cogn Emot 23(7):1259–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Scarantino A (2017) How to do things with emotional expressions: the theory of affective pragmatics. Philos Inq 28(2–3):165–185Google Scholar
  55. Schachter S, Singer J (1962) Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychol Rev 69:379–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Scherer KR (1988) On the symbolic functions of vocal affect expression. J Lang Soc Psychol 7:79–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shariff AF, Tracy JL (2011) What are emotion expressions for? Curr Dir Psychol Sci 20(6):395–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stenseth NC, Saetre GP (2004) Why animals don’t lie. Science 304:519–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sterelny K (2012) The evolved apprentice. MIT Press, Cambridge MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tan JW, Walter S, Scheck A et al (2012) Repeatability of facial electromyography (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major on differentiating various emotions. J Ambient Intell Humaniz Comput 3(1):3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tan JW, Andrade AO, Li H, Walter S, Hrabal D, Rukavina S, Limbrecht-Ecklundt K, Hoffman H, Traue HC (2016) Recognition of intensive valence and arousal affective states via facial electromyographic activity in young and senior adults. PLoS ONE 11(1):e0146691.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146691 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tomkins SS (1984) Affect theory. In: Scherer KR, Ekman P (eds) Approaches to emotion. Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ, pp 163–195Google Scholar
  63. Webb TL, Miles E, Sheeran P (2012) Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychol Bull 138(4):775–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yik MSM, Russell JA (1999) Interpretation of faces: a cross-cultural study of a prediction from Fridlund’s theory. Cogn Emot 13(1):93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations