Biology & Philosophy

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 497–520

Carlquist revisited: history, success, and applicability of a natural history model



In 1966, island biogeographer Sherwin Carlquist published a list of 24 principles governing long-distance dispersal and evolution on islands. The 24 principles describe many aspects of island biology, from long-distance dispersal and establishment to community change and assemblage. Although this was an active period for island biogeography, other models and research garnered much more attention than did Carlquist’s. In this review, over 40 years of support for or against Carlquist’s principles is presented. Recent work has supported most of the 24 principles, and improved methodologies have generally substantiated his initial claims. However, Carlquist’s original work and ideas remain relatively under-represented in the biogeographic literature. Use of philosophical model domains provides one explanation as to why Carlquist’s work has received little attention. Carlquist’s principles are largely natural history tests, and don’t translate well into the theoretical, design of preserves, or the experimental domains—whereas other competing models do well in such domains.


Sherwin Carlquist Long-distance dispersal Island biogeography Model domains Natural history Oceanic islands 


  1. Abbott RJ, Hegarty MJ, Hisock SJ, Brennan AC (2010) Homoploid hybrid speciation in action. Taxon 59:1375–1386Google Scholar
  2. Alatalo RV (1982) Bird species distributions in the Galapagos and other archipelagoes: competition or chance? Ecology 63:881–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldasoro JJ, Cabezas F, Aedo C (2004) Diversity and distribution of ferns in sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar and some islands of the South Atlantic. J Biogeogr 31:1579–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allender CJ, Seehausen O, Knight ME, Turner GF, Maclean N (2003) Divergent selection during speciation of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes inferred from parallel radiations in nuptial coloration. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 100:14074–14079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allendorf FW, Leary RF, Spruell P, Wenburg JK (2001) The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines. Trends Ecol Evol 16:613–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson GJ, Bernardello G, Stuessy TF, Crawford DJ (2001) Breeding system and pollination of selected plants endemic to Juan Fernandez Islands. Am J Bot 88:220–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker HG (1955) Self-compatibility and establishment after ‘long-distance’ dispersal. Evolution 9:347–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker HG, Cox PA (1984) Further thoughts on dioecism and islands. Ann Mo Bot Gard 71:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldwin BG (2007) Adaptive radiation of shrubby tarweeds (Deinandra) in the California Islands parallels diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae-Madiinae). Am J Bot 94:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldwin BG, Sanderson MJ (1998) Age and rate of diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae). Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 95:9402–9406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrett SCH (1996) The reproductive biology and genetics of island plants. Philos T Roy Soc B 351:725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernardello G, Anderson GJ, Stuessy TF, Crawford DJ (2006) The angiosperm flora of the Archipelago Juan Fernandez (Chile): origin and dispersal. Can J Bot 84:1266–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernatchez L, Choinard A, Lu G (1999) Integrating molecular genetics and ecology in studies of adaptive radiation: whitefish, Coregonus sp., as a case study. Biol J Linn Soc 68:173–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blackledge TA, Gillespie RG (2004) Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 101:16228–16233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Böhle UR, Hilger HH, Martin WF (1996) Island colonization and evolution of the insular woody habit in Echium L. (Boraginaceae). Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 93:11740–11745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boyer AG, Jetz W (2010) Biogeography and body size of Pacific island birds. Ecography 33:369–379Google Scholar
  17. Brown RP, Pestano J (1998) Phylogeography of skinks (Chalcides) in the Canary Islands inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Ecol 7:1183–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burness GP, Diamond J, Flannery T (2001) Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: the evolution of maximal body size. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 98:14518–14523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caccone A, Amato O, Gatry C, Behler J, Powell J (1999) A molecular phylogeny of four endangered Madagascar tortoises based on MtDNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 12:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cairns J, Dahlberg ML, Dickson KL, Smith N, Wallter WT (1969) The relationship of fresh-water protozoan communities to the MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium model. Am Nat 103:439–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Callaway RM, Aschehoug ET (2000) Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 290:521–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cardillo M, Meijaard E (2010) Phylogeny and co-occurrence of mammal species on Southeast Asian islands. Global Ecol Biogeogr 19:465–474Google Scholar
  23. Carlquist S (1965) Island life: a natural history of the islands of world. Natural History Press, Garden CityGoogle Scholar
  24. Carlquist S (1966) The biota of long-distance dispersal. I. principles of dispersal and evolution. Q Rev Biol 41:247–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Case TJ (1978) General explanation for insular body size trends in terrestrial vertebrates. Ecology 59:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christiansen DG, Reyer H-U (2010) Effects of geographic distance, sea barriers, and habitat on the genetic structure and diversity of all-hybrid water frog populations. Heredity 106:25–36. doi:10.1038/hdy.201037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clegg S (2010) Evolutionary challenges following island colonization in birds: empirical insights into the roles of microevolutionary processes. In: Losos JB, Ricklefs RE (eds) The theory of island biogeography revisited. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 293–325Google Scholar
  28. Cody ML, Overton JM (1996) Short-term evolution of reduced dispersal in island plant populations. J Ecol 84:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Connor EF, Simberloff D (1979) The assembly of species communities: chance or competition? Ecology 60:1132–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cook LG, Crisp MD (2005) Directional asymmetry of long-distance dispersal and colonization could mislead reconstructions of biogeography. J Biogeogr 32:741–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cronk QCB (1987) The history of endemic flora of the St. Helena: a relictual series. New Phytol 105:509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cronk QCB (1992) Relict floras of the Atlantic islands: patterns assessed. Biol J Linn Soc 46:91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cronk QCB (1997) Islands: stability, diversity, conservation. Biodivers Conserv 6:477–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Forges BR, Koslow JA, Poore GCB (2000) Diversity and endemism of the benthic seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific. Nature 405:944–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Queiroz A (2005) The resurrection of oceanic dispersal in historical biogeography. Trends Ecol Evol 20:68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diamond JM (1975) The island dilemma: lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design of natural reserves. Biol Conserv 7:129–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Díaz-Pérez A, Sequiera M, Santos-Guerra A, Catalán P (2008) Mutliple colonizations, in situ speciation, and volcanism-associated stepping-stone dispersals shaped the phylogeography of the Macaronesian red fescues (Festuca L. Gramineae). Syst Biol 57:732–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dlugosch KM, Parker IM (2008) Invading populations of an ornamental shrub show rapid life history evolution despite genetic bottlenecks. Ecol Lett 11:701–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dobzhansky T (1937) Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Egler F (1942) Vegetation as an object of study. Philos Sci 9:245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ehrenfield JG (2008) Exotic invasive species in urban wetlands: environmental correlates and implications for wetland management. J Appl Ecol 45:1160–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Feinsinger P, Wolfe JA, Swarm LA (1982) Island ecology: reduced hummingbird diversity and the pollination biology of plants, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Ecology 63:494–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Foster JB (1964) The evolution of mammals on islands. Nature 202:234–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Francisco-Ortega J, Jansen RK, Crawford DJ, Santosguerra A (1995) Chloroplast DNA evidence for intergeneric relationships of the macaronesian endemic genus Argyranthemum (Asteraceae). Syst Bot 20:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frankham R (1998) Inbreeding and extinction: Island populations. Conserv Biol 12:665–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gaston KJ, Blackburn TM (1995) Birds, body size, and the threat of extinction. Philos T Roy Soc B 347:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gavrilets S, Losos JB (2009) Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science 323:732–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Geiger JMO, Ranker TA, Ramp Neale JM, Kilmas ST (2007) Molecular biogeography and origins of the Hawaiian fern flora. Brittonia 59:142–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gilbert FS (1980) The equilibrium theory of island biogeography: fact or fiction? J Biogeogr 7:209–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gillespie R (2004) Community assembly through adaptive radiation in Hawaiian spiders. Science 303:356–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gillespie RG, Claridge EM, Roderick GK (2008) Biodiversity dynamics in isolated island communities: interaction between natural and human-mediated processes. Mol Ecol 17:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Givnish TJ, Millam KC, Mast AR, Paterson TB, Theim TJ, Hipp AL, Henss JM, Smith JF, Wood KR, Sytsma KJ (2009) Origin, adaptive radiation, and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae). Proc R Soc B 276:407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Green RE (1997) The influence of numbers released on the outcome of attempts to introduce exotic bird species to New Zealand. J Anim Ecol 66:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Greenslade P (1968) Island patterns in the Solomon Islands bird fauna. Evolution 22:751–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gurevitch J, Hedges LV (1993) Meta-analysis: combining the results of independent experiments. In: Scheiner SM, Gurevitch J (eds) Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 378–398Google Scholar
  56. Heaney LR (1986) Biogeography of mammals in SE Asia: estimates of rates of colonization, extinction and speciation. Biol J Linn Soc 28:127–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heaney LR (2007) Is a new paradigm emerging for oceanic island biogeography? J Biogeogr 34:753–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hellberg ME (2006) Footprints on water: the genetic wake of dispersal among reefs. Coral Reefs 26:463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Herben TJ, Suda J, Munclinger P (2005) The ghost of hybridization past: niche pre-emption is not the only explanation of apparent monophyly in island endemics. J Ecol 93:572–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Herborg L-M, Jerde CL, Lodge DM, Ruiz GM, MacIsaac HJ (2007) Predicting invasion risk using measures of introduction effort and environmental niche models. Ecol Appl 17:663–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hesse RW, Allee C, Schmidt KP (1951) Ecological animal geography, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoekstra HE, Fagan WF (1998) Body size, dispersal ability and compositional disharmony: the carnivore-dominated fauna of the Kuril Islands. Divers Distrib 4:135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Holden MTG et al (2004) Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 101:9786–9791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Holt RD, Gaines MS (1992) Analysis of adaptation in heterogeneous landscapes: implications for the evolution of fundamental niches. Evol Ecol 6:433–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Howarth FG (1987) The evolution of non-relictual tropical troglobites. Int J Speleol 16:1–16Google Scholar
  66. Irschick DJ, Vitt LJ, Zani PA, Losos JB (1997) A comparison of evolutionary radiations in mainland and Caribbean Anolis lizards. Ecology 78:2191–2203Google Scholar
  67. Ishil HS, Kadova T, Kikuchi R, Suda S-I, Washitani I (2008) Habitat and flower resource partitioning by an exotic and three native bumble bees in central Hokkaido, Japan. Biol Conserv 141:2597–2607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnson IM (1953) Studies in the Boraginaceae. A revaluation of some genera in the Lithospermeae. J Arnold Arboretum 34:258–299Google Scholar
  69. Jones AW, Kennedy RS (2008) Evolution in a tropical archipelago: comparative phylogeography of Philippine fauna and flora reveals complex patterns of colonization and diversification. Biol J Linn Soc 95:620–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kier G, Kreft H, Lee TM, Jetz W, Ibisch PL, Nowicki C, Murke J, Barthlott W (2009) A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 106:9322–9327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kim SC, Crawford DJ, Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A (1996) A common origin for woody Sonchus and five related genera in the Macaronesian islands: molecular evidence for extensive radiation. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 93:7743–7748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Krebs RA, Barker JSF (1993) Coexistence of ecologically similar colonizing species. II. Population differentiation in Drosophila aldrichi and D. buzzatti for competitive effects and responses at different temperatures and allozyme variation in D. aldrichi. J Evolution Biol 6:281–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kulathinal RJ, Bettcourt BR, Hartl DL (2004) Compensated deleterious mutations in insect genomes. Science 306:1553–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Larsen PA, Marchán-Rivadeniera MR, Baker RJ (2010) Natural hybridization generates mammalian lineage with species characteristics. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 107:11447–11452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leigh EG (2007) Neutral theory: a historical perspective. J Evol Biol 20:2075–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lendvai G, Levin DA (2003) Rapid response to artificial selection on flower size in Phlox. Heredity 90:336–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lomolino MV (2005) Body size evolution in insular vertebrates: generality of the island rule. J Biogeogr 32:1683–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lomolino MV (2010) Four Darwinian themes on the origin, evolution, and preservation of island life. J Biogeogr 37:985–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. MacArthur RJ, Wilson EO (1963) An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17:373–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  82. Mappes T, Grapputo A, Hakkarainen H, Huhta E, Koskela E, Suananen, Suorsa P (2008) Island selection on mammalian life-histories: genetic differentiation in offspring size. BMC Evol Biol 8:296. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-296
  83. Martin TE (1981) Limitation in small habitat islands: chance or competition? Auk 98:715–734Google Scholar
  84. Mayer SS (1991) Artificial hybridization in Hawaiian Wikstroemia (Thymelaeceae). Am J Bot 7(8):122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mayr E (1944) Wallace’s Line in the light of recent zoogeographic studies. Q Rev Biol 19:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mayr E (1963) Animal species and evolution. Belknap Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. McDowall RM (2003) Hawaiian biogeography and the islands’ freshwater fish fauna. J Biogeogr 30:703–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. McGlone MS, Duncan RP, Heenan PB (2001) Endemism, species selection and the origin and distribution of the vascular plant flora of New Zealand. J Biogeogr 28:199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McNab BK (1994) Energy conservation and the evolution of flightlessness in birds. Am Nat 144:628–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Meiri S, Dayan T, Simberloff D (2004) Body size of insular carnivores: little support for the island rule. Am Nat 163:469–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Meiri S, Dayan T, Simberloff D (2006) The generality of the island rule re-examined. J Biogeog 33:1571–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mertens R (1934) Die Insel-reptilien, ihre Ausbreitung, variation, und Artbildung. Zoologica 32:1–209Google Scholar
  93. Morrone JJ (2010) Fundamental biogeographic patterns across the Mexican transition: and evolutionary approach. Ecography 33:355–361Google Scholar
  94. Nei M, Roychoudhury AK (1973) Probability of fixation of nonfunctional genes at duplicate loci. Am Nat 107:362–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Neigel JE (2010) Where are they now? The fates of two genetic lineages of an introduced Hawaiian reef fish. Mol Ecol 19:1073–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Novak SJ, Mack RN (2001) Tracing plant introduction and spread: genetic evidence from Bromus tectorum (Cheatgrass). Bioscience 51:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Panero JL, Francisco-Ortega J, Jansen RK, Santos-Guerra A (1999) Molecular evidence for multiple origins of woodiness and a new world biogeographic connection of the Macaronesian island endemic Pericallis (asteraceae: Senecioneae). Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 96:13886–13891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Paxino EE, James HF, Olson SL, Sorenson MD, Jackson J, Fleischer RC (2002) mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 99:1399–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Peck SB (1990) Eyeless arthropods of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador: composition and origin of the cryptozoic fauna of a young, tropical, oceanic archipelago. Biotropica 22:366–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Percy DM, Garver AM, Wagner WL, James HF, Cunningham CW, Miller SE, Fleischer RC (2008) Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). Proc R Soc B 275:1479–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Petit RJ, Exocoffier L (2009) Gene flow and species delimitation. Trends Ecol Evol 24:386–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Phillips RB, Winchell CS, Schmidt RH (2007) Dietary overlap of an alien and native carnivore on San Clemente Island, California. J Mammal 88:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pinto GD, Mahler L, Harmon LJ, Losos JB (2008) Testing the island effect in adaptive radiation: rates and patterns of morphological diversification in Caribbean and mainland Anolis lizards. Proc R Soc B 275:2749–2757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Reed DH, Frankham R (2001) How closely correlated are molecular and quantitative measures of genetic variation? A meta-analysis. Evolution 55:1095–1103Google Scholar
  105. Rejmanek M, Richardson DM (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rey JR, Strong DR (1983) Immigration and extinction of salt marsh arthropods on islands: an experimental study. Oikos 41:396–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ribera I, Balke M (2007) Recognition of a species-poor, geographically restricted but morphologically diverse Cape lineage of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hyphydrini). J Biogeogr 34:1220–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Roff DA (1990) The evolution of flightlessness in insects. Ecol Monogr 60:389–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Roman J, Darling JA (2007) Paradox lost: genetic diversity and success of aquatic invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 22:4554–4640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sampayo EM, Franceschinis L, Hoegh-Guldeberg O, Dove S (2007) Niche partitioning of closely related symbiotic dinoflagellates. Mol Ecol 16:3721–3733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schluter D, McPhail JD (1993) Character displacement and replicate adaptive radiation. Trends Ecol Evol 8:197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schubart CD, Diesel R, Hedges SB (1998) Rapid evolution to terrestrial life in Jamaican crabs. Nature 393:363–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Seehausen O (2006) African cichlid fish: a model system in adaptive radiation research. Proc R Soc B 273:1987–1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Siepielski AM, Benkman CW (2004) Interactions among moths, crossbills, squirrels, and lodgepole pine in a geographic mosaic. Evolution 58:95–101Google Scholar
  115. Simberloff D, Wilson EO (1970) Experimental zoogeography of islands. A two-year record of colonization. Ecology 51:934–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sismondo S (2000) Island biogeography and the multiple domains of models. Biol Philos 15:239–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Slikas B, Olson SL, Fleischer RC (2002) Rapid, independent evolution of flightlessness in four species of Pacific Island rails (Rallidae): an analysis based on mitochondrial sequence data. J Avian Biol 33:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Smith JF, Burke CC, Wagner WL (1996) Interspecific hybridization in natural populations of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) on the Hawaiian Islands: evidence from RAPD markers. Plant Syst Evol 200:61–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sorenson MD, Cooper A, Paxinos EE, Quinn TW, James HF, Solson SL, Fleischer RC (1999) Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proc R Soc B 266:2187–2193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stone L, Roberts A (1990) The checkerboard score and species distributions. Oecologia 85:74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Suarez AV, Holway DA, Ward PS (2005) The role of opportunity in the unintentional introduction of nonnative ants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 102:17032–17035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Takayama K, Ohi-Toma T, Kodoh H, Kato H (2005) Origin and diversification of Hibiscus glaber, species endemic to the oceanic Bonin Islands, revealed by chloroplast DNA polymorphism. Mol Ecol 14:1059–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Terborgh J (1971) Chance, habitat, and dispersal in the distribution of birds in the West Indies. Evolution 27:338–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Turner MG, Baker WL, Peterson CJ, Peet RK (1998) Factors influencing succession: lessons from large, infrequent natural disturbances. Ecosystems 1:511–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ulrich W, Hajdamowicz I, Zalewski M, Stanska M, Ciurzycki W, Tykarski P (2010) Species assortment or habitat filtering: a case study of spider communities on lake islands. Ecol Res 25:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Van der Geer A, Lyras G, Dermizakis M (2010) Evolution of island mammals: adaptation and extinction of placental mammals on islands. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 62–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Valen LM (1973) Pattern and the balance of nature. Evol Theor 1:31–49Google Scholar
  128. Venkatasamy S, Khittoo G, Keeley S (2007) Leaky dioecy in Diospyros (Ebenaceae) endemic to the Island of Mauritius. Plant Ecol 189:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vuilleumier F (1970) Insular biogeography in continental regions. I. the northern Andes of South America. Am Nat 104:373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang JL, Hill WG, Charlesworth D, Charlesworth B (1999) Dynamics of inbreeding depression due to deleterious mutations in small populations: mutation parameters and inbreeding rate. Genet Res 74:165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Weller SG, Sakai AK, Wagner WL, Herbst DR (1990) Evolution of dioecy in Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae: Alsinoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands: biogeographical and ecological factors. Syst Bot 15:266–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Whittaker RK (1998) Island biogeography: ecology, evolution and conservation. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  133. Wittenberg R, Cock M (eds) (2001) Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  134. Young HS, McCauley DJ, Dirzo R, Dunbar RB, Schaffer SA (2010) Niche partitioning among and within sympatric tropical seabirds revealed by stable isotope analysis. Mar Ecol-Prog 416:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Marine BiologyUniversity of North Carolina WilmingtonWilmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations