Biology and Philosophy

, Volume 20, Issue 2–3, pp 305–328 | Cite as

Evolutionary Psychology – Towards a More Integrative Model

  • Frederick Toates


Aspects of the history of behavioural science are reviewed, pointing to its fragmented and faction-ridden nature. The emergence of evolutionary psychology (EP) is viewed in this context. With the help of a dual-layered model of behavioural control, the case is made for a more integrative perspective towards EP. The model's application to both behaviour and complex human information processing is described. Similarities in their control are noted. It is suggested that one layer of control (‘on-line’) corresponds to the encapsulated modules of EP whereas the off-line controls provide the plasticity and flexibility suggested by its critics.


Automaticity Behavioural hierarchy Cognition Development Ethology Evolutionary psychology Habit History of psychology Module Motivation Reflex 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK

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