Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 369–378 | Cite as

Characterization of novel D-hordeins from Psathyrostachys juncea

  • X. K. Hu
  • S. F. Dai
  • T. Ouellet
  • M. Balcerzak
  • H. Rocheleau
  • S. Khanizadeh
  • Z. J. Pu
  • Z. H. YanEmail author
Original Papers


Three genes encoding novel D-hordeins, Ns 1.3, Ns 2.6, and Ns 2.9 were isolated from Psathyrostachys juncea. The Ns 1.3 differed from Ns 2.6 and Ns 2.9 by having a shorter open reading frame (< 1.5 kb versus > 2.5 kb), and was probably not expressed as a normal protein, while the activities for Ns 2.6 and Ns 2.9 were verified by bacterial expression. Though highly similar primary structure to wheat high molecular mass glutenin subunits (HMM-GSs) and barley D-hordeins, Ns 2.6 and Ns 2.9 had more cysteine residues (nine in total) and a larger molecular mass than HMMGSs, and a longer N-terminal length than D-hordeins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Ps. juncea D-hordeins were divided into Ns 1.3 type and Ns 2.6/Ns 2.9 type. Divergence times indicated that Ns 1.3 diverged the earliest from the orthologous Triticeae locus, while Ns 2.6 and Ns 2.9 and the D-hordeins from two Hordeum species diverged nearly at the same time from those loci, and the divergence between the D-hordeins of H. chilense and Ns 2.6/Ns 2.9 was more recent than between the two Hordeum species. The novel Ps. juncea D-hordeins have the potential to be very important for improving the end-use quality of wheat flours because of the presence of extra cysteine residues and longer repetitive domain, in addition they can contribute to the understanding of the evolution of Triticeae prolamins.

Additional key words

bacterial expression Hordeum chilense H. vulgare HMM-prolamins phylogenetic analysis Triticum aestivum 



amino acid


cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide




high molecular mass glutenin subunits




million years ago


open reading frame


polymerase chain reaction


sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


untranslated region


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • X. K. Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. F. Dai
    • 1
  • T. Ouellet
    • 2
  • M. Balcerzak
    • 2
  • H. Rocheleau
    • 2
  • S. Khanizadeh
    • 2
  • Z. J. Pu
    • 3
  • Z. H. Yan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Triticeae Research InstituteSichuan Agricultural UniversityChengduPR China
  2. 2.Ottawa Research and Development CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Crop Research InstituteSichuan Academy of Agricultural ScienceChengduPR China

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