Progesterone moderates damage in Arabidopsis thaliana caused by infection with Pseudomonas syringae or P. fluorescens
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Brassinosteroids are known to protect plants against various abiotic and biotic stresses, however, very limited information is available about the role of progesterone. Therefore the effects of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (P.s.) wild type strain 61, its hrcC mutant, and the saprophytic P. fluorescens (P.f.) strain 55 were investigated in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia and its rbohF knock-out mutant, with and without progesterone pre-treatment. The reactions of wild type and rbohF mutant Arabidopsis to bacterial inoculations were similar, although 2 h after injection of P.s. a larger increase of electrolyte leakage was measured in wild type than in rbohF knockout mutant leaves. The hrcC mutant caused weak necrotic symptoms and increased leakage in both types of Arabidopsis, although to a much lesser extent than P.s. The P.f. did not induce any visible symptom, but slightly increased the electrolyte leakage in both types of Arabidopsis. Inoculation by all Pseudomonas bacteria led to significant alterations in photosystem 2 efficiency as compared to control plants. Pre-treatment of leaves with progesterone diminished the necrotic symptoms, the electrolyte leakage and improve the efficiency of photosystem 2 caused by Pseudomonas bacteria.
Additional key wordsArabidopsis rbohF knockout mutant ion leakage PS 2 efficiency Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae hrcC mutant
variable to maximum fluorescence ratio
hours post inoculation
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae
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