Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 699–704 | Cite as

Salt- and osmotic stress-induced choline monooxygenase expression in Kochia scoparia is ABA-independent

  • E. B. Kalinina
  • B. K. Keith
  • A. J. Kern
  • W. E. Dyer
Article

Abstract

Choline monooxygenase (CMO) is the first regulatory enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for glycine betaine, an effective osmoprotectant in Kochia scoparia, a highly drought- and salt-tolerant species. In seedlings, CMO transcript levels are rapidly increased in response to both NaCl and osmotic stress treatments. The mRNA level in shoots was substantially higher than in roots. The rapid induction seen in whole plants was in contrast to the apparent down-regulation observed in suspension-cultured K. scoparia cells in response to the same salt stress. Treatment with exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) or fluridone shows that CMO induction proceeds via an ABA-independent signal transduction pathway. Examination of the CMO upstream regulatory region reveals a number of stress response-related elements, some of which may be involved in the stress tolerance shown by this species.

Additional key words

gene expression glycine betaine iso-osmotic treatments Northern hybridization reverse transcription quantitative PCR 

Abbreviations

ABA

abscisic acid

ABREs

ABA-responsive elements

ARF

auxin response factor

BADH

betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase

CMO

choline monooxydase

DRE

dehydration-responsive element

GB

glycine betaine

qRT-PCR

reverse transcription quantitative PCR

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. B. Kalinina
    • 1
  • B. K. Keith
    • 1
  • A. J. Kern
    • 2
  • W. E. Dyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Sciences and Plant PathologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyNorthland CollegeAshlandUSA

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