The identification of flavonoids and the expression of genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the chrysanthemum flowers
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In order to provide additional information on the coloration of chrysanthemum flowers, the flavonoid composition and the expression of six structural genes involved in anthocyanin pathway in the ray florets of a pink flowering (cv. H5) and two white flowering (cvs. Keikai and Jinba) Chrysanthemum grandiflorum cultivars were examined. HPLCDAD/ESI-MSn analysis showed that cyanidin 3-O-(6″-O-malonylglucoside) and cyanidin 3-O-(3″,6″-O-dimalonylglucoside) were the two major flavonoids presented in H5, while white flowering cultivars contained flavones instead of anthocyanins. Nine flavone derivatives were detected in the three cultivars, the amount of each flavone varied upon cultivars, and seven of these were identified as luteolin 7-O-arabinosylglucuronide, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-malonylglucoside, apigenin 7-O-malonylglucoside, chrysoeriol 7-O-malonylglucoside, acacetin 7-O-rutinoside and acacetin 7-O-malonylglucoside. The two white flowering cultivars showed similar total flavonoid content, which was about two fold higher than that in H5. A high expression of the genes encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and 3-O-glucosyltransferase was detected only in H5 but not in Keikai or Jinba. Chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, and flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase were expressed in all flowers, suggesting that the lack of anthocyanin in white flowering cultivars cannot be due to any blockage of their expression.
Additional key wordsChrysanthemum grandiflorum cyanidin flavone flower coloration structural gene
cyanidin 3-O-(3″, 6″-O-dimalonylglucoside)
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