Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 1–15 | Cite as

Problems and possibilities of monocot transformation

  • P. Sood
  • A. BhattacharyaEmail author
  • A. Sood


Biotechnological improvement of monocots is often hampered by the lack of efficient regeneration systems, requisite wound responses and low cell competence. Despite these limitations, the biolistic and Agrobacterium methods have been successfully used to produce several transgenic monocots by adjusting the parameters that govern efficient delivery and integration of transgene(s) into plant genome. It is now possible to transform even difficult monocots using tailor-made gene constructs and promoters, suitable A. tumefaciens strains and a proper understanding of the entire process. This success has been reviewed in the present article and a special emphasis was laid on the measures that were taken in overcoming the difficulties that arise due to the differential responses of monocots and dicots. This information is necessary for biotechnological improvement of still newer monocotyledonous plants that have been hitherto difficult to transform.

Additional key words

Agrobacterium microprojectile bombardment tailor-made gene constructs 



fluorescence in situ hybridization


nuclear localization signal


nuclear signal E1


polyethylene glycol




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The authors are grateful to CSIR and the director, IHBT for providing the requisite facilities for carrying out this work. Priyanka Sood also acknowledges the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India for providing financial assistance in the form of Senior Research Fellowship. IHBT Publication number: 0745.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Biotechnology, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource TechnologyCouncil of Scientifi and Industrial ResearchPalampurIndia

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