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Biologia Plantarum

, 52:601 | Cite as

The relationship between vernalization-and photoperiodically-regulated genes and the development of frost tolerance in wheat and barley

  • K. KosováEmail author
  • I. T. Prášil
  • P. Vítámvás
Review

Abstract

The review summarizes the level of current knowledge of impacts of vernalization and photoperiod on the induction and maintenance of frost tolerance (FrT) in wheat and barley. The phenomenon of vernalization is briefly described and the major vernalization (VRN) loci are characterised. Vernalization requirement and the three major growth habits of Triticeae (facultative, winter and spring) are defined on the basis of the two-locus VRN-2/VRN-1 epistatic model. Major photoperiodically regulated genes, which influence the transition to flowering, are characterised and their interactions with VRN genes are briefly discussed. The phenomenon of induction of FrT during the process of cold acclimation (CA) is described and the major cold-induced Cor/Lea genes are listed. Important regulatory mechanisms, i.e., CBF pathway, controlling the expression of Cor/Lea genes under cold, are discussed. The major loci affecting the development of FrT in Triticeae, the Fr loci, are characterised. In conclusion, current progress in this research field is summarized and new questions arising in the area are formulated.

Additional key words

cold acclimation Hordeum Triticum 

Abbreviations

aa

amino acid

ABA

abscisic acid

AP1

apetala 1 (gene)

CA

cold acclimation

CBF

C-repeat binding factor (gene)

CO

constans (gene)

Cor/Lea

cold-regulated/late embryogenesis abundant (genes)

Dhn

dehydrin (gene)

FLC

FLOWERING LOCUS C (gene)

Fr

frost-resistance locus(i)

FrT

frost tolerance

FT

FLOWERING LOCUS T (gene)

ICE-1

inducer of CBF expression 1 (gene)

LD

long day

LT

low temperature

LT50

lethal temperature when 50 % of the samples die

Mr

relative molecular mass

NIL

near isogenic line

pI

protein isoelectric point

Ppd

photoperiod locus(i)

PRR

pseudo-response regulator (gene)

QTL

quantitative trait locus(i)

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SD

short day

SDS-PAGE

sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

TF

transcription factor

VRN

vernalization (gene)

Vrn

a dominant allele of VRN gene

vrn

a recessive allele of VRN gene

Wcor

wheat cold-regulated (gene)

Wcs

wheat cold-specific (gene)

Wrab

wheat response-to-ABA (gene)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingCrop Research InstitutePrague 6-RuzyněCzech Republic

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