Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 277–280 | Cite as

A new medium formulation for in vitro rooting of carob tree based on leaf macronutrients concentrations

  • S. Gonçalves
  • P. J. Correia
  • M. A. Martins-Loução
  • A. RomanoEmail author
Brief Communication


Experiments were performed to optimize the macronutrients concentrations for in vitro rooting of Ceratonia siliqua micropropagated shoots. Several dilutions of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were tested: full-strength MS, half-strength MS (\({1 \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 2}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} 2}\)MS), and \({1 \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 2}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} 2}\)MS + full N. The frequency of in vitro rooting was enhanced when the \({1 \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 2}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} 2}\)MS was used (50 % rooted shoots). Mature leaves from 20 − 30 year-old carob trees and from 2 year-old micropropagated plants were collected and the concentrations of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) assessed. Based on the mineral composition of the leaves a new medium was formulated and compared with the previous ones showing an increment of the rooting frequency to 80 %. Moreover, shoots rooted in the new medium did not show symptoms of apical necrosis that occurred in the other tested media.

Additional key words

Ceratonia siliqua culture medium micropropagation nutrient medium 





indole-3-butyric acid

MS medium

Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gonçalves
    • 1
  • P. J. Correia
    • 1
  • M. A. Martins-Loução
    • 2
  • A. Romano
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculdade de Engenharia de Recursos NaturaisUniversidade do Algarve, Campus de GambelasFaroPortugal
  2. 2.Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de Lisboa, Campo GrandeLisboaPortugal

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